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Liolaemus tajzara AGUILAR-KIRIGIN, 2019

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymLiolaemus tajzara AGUILAR-KIRIGIN in ABDALA et al. 2019
Liolaemus islugensis — TARIFA et al. in KELT et al. 2007 
DistributionBolivia (Tarija)

Type locality: Surroundings of Laguna Pujzara (21°42’21.8”S, 65°3’53.3”W), 3658 m above sea level, Reserva Biológica Cordillera de Sama, Copacabana Canton, Yunchara Munici- pality, Avilez Province, Tarija Department, Plurinational State of Bolivia.  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: CBF 4610. Adult male. March 20, 2017. Collectors: Alvaro J. Aguilar-Kirigin, Cristian S. Abdala, Ana Lucia Bulacios Arroyo, and Julián Valdez (Figs 4 and 5).
Paratypes: CBF 4608–4609; 4611–4617; 4641–4643. Seven males and five females. Same data as holotype (Figs 6 and 7).
FML 3587 (1–4). Two males and two females. Surroundings of Laguna Grande and Laguna Pujzara, plains of Tajzara Basin, Reserva Biolo ́gica Cordillera de Sama (21°43’57.6”S, 65°3’36.9”W) 3691 m above sea level, Copacabana Canton, Yunchara Municipality, Avilez Province, Tarija Department, Plurinational State of Bolivia. August 09, 1995. Collectors: Gustavo Scrocchi and Pedro Blendinger.
FML 3584. Male. Río Vicuñayos, fork in the road to Vicuñayos and Arenales, Reserva Biológica Cordillera de Sama (21°45’37.3”S, 65°3’6.7”W), 3750 m above sea level, Copacabana Canton, Yunchara Municipality, Avilez Province, Tarija Department, Plurinational State of Bolivia. August 1995. Collectors: Gustavo Scrocchi and Pedro Blendinger.
FML 3581. Male. Surroundings of Laguna Grande and Laguna Pujzara, plains of Tajzara Basin, Reserva Biolo ́gica Cordillera de Sama (21°48’1.6”S, 65°2’16.5”W), 3750 m above sea level, Copacabana Canton, Yunchara Municipality, Avilez Province, Tarija Department, Plurinational State of Bolivia. August 08, 1995. Collectors: Gustavo Scrocchi and Pedro Blendinger.
 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Liolaemus tajzara sp. nov. belongs to the L. montanus group because it presents a bladelike process on the tibia, associated with the hypertrophy of the tibialis anticus muscle [20, 67]. The L. montanus group species differ from those of the L. boulengeri group [9, 68] by the complete absence of patches of enlarged scales in the posterior part of the thigh (versus presence of such patches, at least in adult males). Within the L. montanus group, our new species is distinguished from Liolaemus audituvelatus, L. famatinae, L. griseus, Liolaemus insolitus, Liolaemus manueli, Liolaemus omorfi, Liolaemus poconchilensis, Liolaemus reichei, Liolaemus stolzmanni and Liolaemus torresi by their smaller size, with a maximum SVL of less than 65 mm compared to at least 71.9 mm in L. tajzara sp. nov. and, it is distinguished from Liolaemus annectens, Liolaemus aymararum, L. chlorostictus, L. dorbignyi, Liolaemus duellmani, Liolaemus fabiani, Liolaemus filiorum, L. forsteri, Liolaemus foxi, Liolaemus huayra, L. huacahuasicus, Liolaemus igneus, Liolaemus inti, L. jamesi, Liolaemus juanortizi, Liolaemus melanogaster, Liolaemus nigriceps, L. orientalis, L. pantherinus, L. pachecoi, Liolaemus patriciaiturrae, L. pleopholis, Liolaemus polystictus, L. puritamensis, Liolaemus robustus, Liolaemus scrocchii, L. signifer, Liolaemus tacora, Liolaemus vulcanus and, Liolaemus williamsi by their larger size with maximum SVL exceeding 75 mm (often greater than 90 mm) versus the observed maximum of 71.9 mm in L. tajzara sp. nov. Liolaemus tajzara sp. nov. has a unique character among the analyzed Liolaemus of the L. montanus group, and that is that the keels of the dark dorsal scales are more evident than those of the light scales, which can even be smooth (Fig 8). The presence of sub-imbricate dorsal scales, with slight keels, differentiates L. tajzara sp. nov. from species with smooth juxtaposed or sub-imbricate scales such as Liolaemus andinus, L. audituvelatus, Liolaemus cazianiae, Liolaemus eleodori, L. erguetae, L. fabiani, L. foxi, Liolaemus gracielae, Liolaemus halonastes, L. insolitus, L. islugensis, L. jamesi, Liolaemus molinai, L. manueli, L. nigriceps, L. omorfi, L. patriciaiturrae, L. pleopholis, L. poconchilensis, Liolaemus poecilochromus, Liolaemus porosus, L. reichei, Liolaemus robertoi, L. robustus, Liolaemus rosenmanni, Liolaemus ruibali, L. schmidti, L. scrocchii, L. tacora, L. torresi, Liolaemus vallecurensis and L. vulcanus. Also, L. tajzara sp. nov. differs from species with imbricate dorsal scales with evident keels, such as L. annectens, L. aymararum, Liolaemus disjunctus, L. etheridgei, L. fittkaui, L. griseus, L. huacahuasicus, L. montanus, L. orientalis, L orko, L. pachecoi, L. pulcherrimus, L. signifer, Liolaemus thomasi and L. williamsi. This new species differs from L. evaristoi and L. etheridgei by the absence of sky blue or celeste scales on the sides and dorsum of the body and tail.
The number of scales around midbody in L. tajzara sp. nov. varies between 66 and 82 (mean = 72.2), which differentiates it from several species of the group with more than 85 scales, such as L. andinus, L. eleodori, L. erguetae, L. gracielae, L. halonastes, L. molinai, L. nigriceps, L. patriciaiturrae, L. pleopholis, L. porosus, L. robertoi, L. rosenmannii, and L. vallecurensis and from species with less than 66 such as L. annectens, L. aymararum, L. chlorostictus, L. dorbignyi, L. etheridgei, L. fabiani, L. famatinae, L. fittkaui, L. griseus, Liolaemus hajeki, L. huayra, L. huacahuasicus, L. jamesi, L. igneus, L. melanogaster, L. montanus, L. orientalis, Liolaemus ortizi, L. pachecoi, L. poconchilensis, L. puritamensis, L. thomasi, L. robustus, L. vulcanus and L. williamsi. The number of ventral scales between the mental scale and the border of the vent in L. tajzara sp. nov. varies between 75 and 90 (mean = 80.9), and is lower than in the following species, with more than 90 ventral scales: L. andinus, L. cazianiae, L. erguetae, L. foxi, L. gracielae, L. halonastes, L. inti, Liolaemus multicolor, L. nigriceps, L. pachecoi, L. patriciaiturrae, L. pleopholis, L. poecilochromus, L. porosus, L. robertoi, L. rosenmannii, L. torresi, and L. vallecurensis; and higher than in the following species with less than 75 ventral scales: L. dorbignyi, L. fittkaui, L. melanogaster, L. ortizi, L. polystictus, L. robustus, and L. thomasi. Likewise, the dorsal patterns of most males and females, formed by ocelli-like paravertebral spots with black borders and light brown centers, and by evident continuous or discontinuous dorsolateral bands, clearly differentiate it from its closest relatives (L. fittkaui, L. griseus, L. huacahuasicus, L. montanus, L. orko and L. pulcherrimus) [6] and from the rest of the Liolaemus, while being most similar in this respect to some female L. fittkaui. However, L. tajzara sp. nov. is phylogenetically closest to L. pulcherrimus (Fig 1, Figs 9 and 10) [6]. In addition to the differences highlighted above, they differentiate from each other in that L. tajzara sp. nov. presents a lower number of dorsal scales from the occiput to the hind limbs (69–94, mean = 73.8 vs. 78–90, mean = 85.3) and that females present 0 to 4 precloacal pores versus up to 5 in L. pulcherrimus. 
Comment 
EtymologyThe scientific name for this new species was assigned in reference to the type locality: the surroundings of the Tajzara Basin lagoons in the Reserva Biolo ́gica Cordillera de Sama of the Tarija Department, Plurinational State of Bolivia. 
References
  • Abdala CS, Aguilar-Kirigin AJ, Semhan RV, Bulacios Arroyo AL, Valdes J, Paz MM, et al. 2019. Description and phylogeny of a new species of Liolaemus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) endemic to the south of the Plurinational State of Bolivia. PLoS ONE 14(12): e0225815 - get paper here
  • Kelt DA, Lessa EP, Salazar-Bravo J, Patton L, (editors) 2007. The quintessential naturalist: honoring the life and legacy of Oliver P. Pearson. University of California Publications in Zoology; 2007. pp. 214–274
 
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