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Liotyphlops schubarti VANZOLINI, 1948

IUCN Red List - Liotyphlops schubarti - Data Deficient, DD

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Higher TaxaAnomalepididae, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Sao Paulo Blind Snake
Portuguese: Cobra-Cega-de-Pirassununga 
SynonymLiotyphlops schubarti VANZOLINI 1948: 379
Liotyphlops schubarti — DIXON & KOFRON 1984: 254
Liotyphlops schubarti — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 51
Liotyphlops schubarti — FREIRE et al. 2007
Liotyphlops schubarti — WALLACH et al. 2014: 397
Liotyphlops schubarti — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Sao Paulo)

Type locality: Cachõeira de Emas, São Paulo, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: MZUSP 2595, 2665 
DiagnosisDescription: “We have examined the holotype and three additional specimens of L. schubarti from Emas and Sapucaí, São Paulo, Brazil. All gazetteers indicate the latter locality as a river, therefore we are unable to determine a more precise locality. The four specimens of L. schubarti are very similar to L. beui from São Paulo in total lengths, dorsals, scales around body and in head scale arrangements, but with one significant difference; whereas beui has the second supralabial in broad contact with the posterior end of the nasal scale, schubarti has an extra scale (stippled in fig. 3) (perhaps vertically divided nasal?) inserted between the second supralabial and the nasal. The nasal scale of L. schubarti appears to be much shorter anteroposteriorly than in L. beui, and without close examination one would easily place L. schubarti with L. beui. The dorsals of Liotyphlops schubarti vary from 372-387 (X = 378.7), and this overlaps slightly with beui, which has 384-464 dorsals. Scales around the body are 22(4) anteriorly, 20(3) or 21(1) at midbody, and 20(4) posteriorly, which are within the range of L. beui. (Dixon & Kofron 1984)

Comment: The head scale arrangement of L. schubarti may be an occasional variant of L. beui. The arrangement of the head scales on the right side of the head of the holotype is like that of L. beui. The number of dorsals is certainly not diagnostic considering the variation expressed in other species with greater number of specimens available. However, specimens of L. beui have not been found at Emas or Sapucaí, nor has the particular head scale arrangement of L. schubarti been found in a sample of 47 L. beui from the vicinity of the city of São Paulo. We hesitate placing L. schubarti into the synonomy of L. beui until additional material of L. schubarti becomes available from the vicinity of the type locality of the latter, or that the particular head scale arrangement of L. schubarti begins to appear in larger samples of L. beui from the vicinity of the city of São Paulo.” (Dixon & Kofron 1984) 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Otto Schubart, a German biologist who emigrated to Brazil (1934). 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bressan, Paulo Magalhães; Maria Cecília Martins Kierulff, Angélica Midori Sugieda (eds.) 2009. FAUNA AMEAÇADA DE EXTINÇÃO NO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO: VERTEBRADOS. São Paulo: Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo: Secretaria do Meio Ambiente, 2009. - get paper here
  • Dixon J R; Kofron C P 1984. The Central and South American anomalepid snakes of the genus Liotyphlops. Amphibia-Reptilia 4 (2-4): 241-264 [1983] - get paper here
  • FREIRE, E.M.X.; U. CARAMASCHI & A.J.S. ARGOLO 2007. A new species of Liotyphlops (Serpentes: Anomalepididae) from the Atlantic Rain Forest of Northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa 1393: 19-26 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • MARQUES, O. A. V. et al. 2009. Repteis. In: Bressan et al., FAUNA AMEAÇADA DE EXTINÇÃO NO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO: VERTEBRADOS. São Paulo: Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo: Secretaria do Meio Ambiente, pp. 285-327 - get paper here
  • Marra-Santos, Fidélis Júnio and Roberto E. Reis 2018. Two New Blind Snake Species of the Genus Liotyphlops (Serpentes: Anomalepididae), from Central and South Brazil. Copeia 106 (3): 507-514 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Ukuwela, K.D.B., de Silva, A., Sivaruban, A. et al. 2022. Diversity, distribution, and natural history of the marine snakes of Sri Lanka. Marine Biodiversity 52, 24 (2022) - get paper here
  • Vanzolini, P. E. 1948. Notas sóbre os ofídios e lagartos da cachoeira de ema, no município de Pirassununga, estado de São Paulo. Rev. brasil. Biol., Rio de Janeiro, 8: 377-400
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zaher, Hussam; Fausto Erritto BarboI; Paola Sanchez Martínez; Cristiano Nogueira; Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues; Ricardo Jannini Sawaya 2011. Répteis do Estado de São Paulo: conhecimento atual e perspectivas. Biota Neotropica, 11 (1): 1–15. - get paper here
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