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Lophosaurus dilophus (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1837)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Amphibolurinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesIndonesian Forest Dragon 
SynonymLophyrus dilophus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 419
Tiaris dilophus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 419 (by implication)
Calotes megapogon SCHLEGEL in DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 419 (nom. nud.)
Tiaris megapogon GRAY 1845: 239 (fide BOULENGER 1885)
Tiaris dilophus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: plate 46
Gonocephalus dilophus — MEYER 1874
Gonyocephalus dilophus — BOULENGER 1885: 290
Gonyocephalus dilophus — DE ROOIJ 1915: 108
Goniocephalus dilophus — LOVERIDGE 1948: 336
Gonocephalus dilophus — WERMUTH 1967: 58
Hypsilurus dilophus — MANTHEY & SCHUSTER 1999: 73
Hypsilurus dilophus — KRAUS & MYERS 2012
Lophosaurus dilophus — DENZER & MANTHEY 2016 
DistributionIndonesia (Aru I, Kei I, Batanta = Batana, Salawat), New Guinea, Ferguson Island, d'Entrecasteaux Archipelago, Milne Bay Prov.: Normanby Island.

Type locality: Nouvelle Guinée.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MNHN 2561 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). Medium to large sized, arboreal amphibolu- rine lizard without femoral or precloacal pores (present in all Australian agamid lizards apart from Chelosania and Moloch); no spines on the body (present in Moloch), no frill around the neck (present in Chlamydosaurus); a transverse gular fold (absent in Chelosania), dorsal scales heterogeneous in size (homogeneous in all Hypsilurus s. l.); TL/HBL < 2.3, typically < 2; lacrimal bone present (absent in all Australian Amphibolurinae apart from Intellagama and Chelosania) (DENZER & MANTHEY 2016: 108).

Diagnosis. Large, short tailed species with heterogeneous dorsal scalation and a discontinuous vertebral crest. Several weakly enlarged scales below the tympanum; a row of enlarged submaxillaries present; anterior edge of the gular pouch with large lanceolate scales.
H. dilophus differs from boydii by the absence of large conical scales below the tympanum (vs. present); spinipes by lanceolate scales of the nuchal and dorsal crests (vs. triangular); all other species by a heterogeneous (vs. homogeneous) dorsal scalation. 
CommentSimilar species: H. magnus.

Synonymy mostly after WERMUTH 1967. Illustration in BARTS & WILMS 2003. DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 419 “introduce the new species Lophyrus dilophus. A line further down they refer to a drawing of this species on plate 46 under the genus name of Tiaris. This discrepancy is explained on p. 421 where the authors state that it was originally intended to erect a new genus Tiaris for this species and that they decided against it at a later stage. We assume that the plates containing the name Tiaris had already been printed and subsequent changes would have been difficult to realize” (Manthey & Denzer 2016).

Lifestyle: semi-arboreal.

Type species: Lophyrus dilophus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 419 is the type species of the genus Lophosaurus FITZINGER 1843. 
Etymology 
References
  • Barts, M. & Wilms, T. 2003. Die Agamen der Welt. Draco 4 (14): 4-23 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp.
  • Denzer, Wolfgang; Ulrich Manthey 2016. Remarks on the taxonomy and nomenclature of the genus Hypsilurus Peters, 1867 (Reptilia, Agamidae, Amphibolurinae) Zoosyst. Evol. 92 (1): 103–110; DOI: 10.3897/zse.92.7469 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Kraus, Fred. 2013. Further range extensions for reptiles and amphibians from Papua New Guinea. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 277-280
  • Loveridge, A. 1948. New Guinean reptiles and amphibians in the Museum of Comparative Zoology and United States National Museum. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 101 (2): 305-430. - get paper here
  • Macey, J. R., J. A. Schulte II, A. Larson, N. B. Ananjeva, Y. Wang, R. Pethiyagoda, N. Rastegar-Pouyani, T. J. Papenfuss 2000. Evaluating trans-Tethys migration: an example using acrodont lizard phylogenetics. Systematic Biology 49 (2): 233-256 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Denzer, W. 2006. A revision of the Melanesian-Australian angle head lizards of the genus Hypsilurus (Sauria: Agamidae: Amphibolurinae), with description of four new species and one new subspecies. Hamadryad 30 (1-2): 1 – 40
  • ORD, T. J.; D. A. KLOMP, J. GARCIA-PORTA & M. HAGMAN 2015. Repeated evolution of exaggerated dewlaps and other throat morphology in lizards. J. evol. Biol., doi: 10.1111/jeb.12709 - get paper here
  • Pieh, A. & Kirschner, A. 2004. Schädigung einer Winkelkopfagame durch Schuppenameisen. Elaphe 12 (3): 52-53
  • Roux,J. 1910. Reptilien und Amphibien der Aru- und Kei-Inseln. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 33: 211-247 - get paper here
  • Steiof, C. & W. Grossmann 1992. Das Portrait: Hypsilurus dilophus (Duméril & Bibron). Sauria 14 (4): 1-2 - get paper here
 
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