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Loxopholis guianensis (MACCULLOCH & LATHROP, 2001)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae s.l., Ecpleopodinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Common Names 
SynonymArthrosaura guianensis MACCULLOCH & LATHROP 2001
Arthrosaura guianensis — COLE et al. 2013
Loxopholis guianensis — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 
DistributionGuyana (Mount Ayanganna, Pakaraima Mountains)

Type locality: northeast plateau of Mount Ayanganna, Guyana (05° 24’ N, 059° 57’ W; elevation 1490 m).  
TypesHolotype: ROM 39471 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A short-bodied Arthrosaura characterised by four supraoculars and a paired series of broad median gulars. Lateral scales not sharply demarcated from dorsals or ventrals; dorsal, lateral, and ventral scales form continuous circumferential midbody rows. Femoral and anal pores are contained within a single scale. Body colouration dark brown dorsally with a light dorsolateral stripe from head to groin. Ventral colouration white, with dark mottling and an orange-red wash in the holotype. The species is placed in Arthrosaura by the following combination of characters: dorsal and lateral body scales hexagonal, in transverse rows only; enlarged paired gulars; nasal scales separated by frontonasal; ventrals smooth, imbricate. No other microteiid genus in northeastern South America has this suite of characters.
Arthrosaura guianensis can be distinguished from A. kockii by having keeled parietals and interparietal (smooth in kockii) and the pores within a single scale (in a group of scales). Arthrosaura guianensis can be distinguished from A. testigensis by having 45 scales around the midbody (37 in A. testigensis), keeled parietals and interparietal (smooth) and > 40 small temporal scales irregularly arranged (< 20, large, in four or five rows). Males of A. testigensis have not been collected, so the condition of the femoral pores is unknown. Arthrosaura guianensis can be distinguished from A. reticulata, A. synaptolepis, A. tyleri and A. versteegii by the presence of four supraoculars and the femoral and anal pores within a single scale; these four species have three supraoculars and pores within a group of scales. 
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • Kok, Philippe J.R. 2008. A new highland species of Arthrosaura Boulenger, 1885 (Squamata: Symnophthalmidae) from Maringma tepui on the border of Guyana and Brazil. Zootaxa 1909: 1-15 - get paper here
  • Macculloch, R. AND AMY LATHROP 2001. A New Species of Arthrosaura (Sauria: Teiidae) from the Highlands of Guyana. Carib. J. Sci. 37 (3-4): 174-181 - get paper here
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