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Loxopholis percarinatum (MÜLLER, 1923)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesMuller's Tegu 
SynonymHylosaurus percarinatus MÜLLER 1923: 146
Leposoma taeniata NOBLE 1923: 303
Hylosaurus muelleri MERTENS 1925: 76
Leposoma percarinatum - BURT & BURT 1931: 349
Leposoma percarinatum — PETERS et al. 1970: 165
Leposoma percarinatum — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Lepidosoma percarinatum [sic] — KUHN & SCHMIDT 2003
Leposoma percarinatum — CASTOE et al. 2004
Loxopholis percarinatum — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 
DistributionGuyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Venezuela, SE Colombia,
Brazil (Amapa, Para, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rio Negro, Roroima, Rondonia), Bolivia (Pando)

Type locality: Peixeboi, Estado do Pará, Brazil.  
ReproductionParthenogenetic, triploid species. It has been suggested that L. guianense and L. parietale are the parent species of L. percarinatum. Synonymy after Peters et al. 1970. Pellegrino et al. 2011 found a diploid lineage within L. percarinatum, suggesting a species complex. Souza et al. 2015 described bisexual populations 
TypesHolotype: ZSM 140/1911, female 
CommentDistribution: Presence in Bolivia unclear; there seem to be no published specific localities (T. Doan, pers. comm.). 
References
  • Aguayo, R. & Quinteros Muñoz, O. 2008. Leposoma percarinatum (Müller 1923) (Sauria: Gymnophthalmidae). Cuad. Herpetol. 22 (1): 53 - get paper here
  • Avila-Pires,T.C.S. 1995. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1-706 - get paper here
  • Barrio-Amorós, César L. & Brewer-Carias, Charles 2008. Herpetological results of the 2002 expedition to Sarisari–ama, a tepui in Venezuelan Guayana, with the description of five new species. Zootaxa 1942: 1-68 - get paper here
  • Burt,C.E. & Burt,M.D. 1931. South American lizards in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History. Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist. 61 (7): 227-395
  • Castoe, T.A.; Doan, T.M. & Parkinson, C.L. 2004. Data partitions and complex models in Bayesian analysis: the phylogeny of Gymnophthalmid lizards. Systematic Biology 53 (3): 448-469 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Costa-Prudente, A.L.C.; F. Magalhães; A. Menks; J.F.M. Sarmento. 2013. Checklist of Lizards of the Juruti, state of Pará, Brazil. Check List 9 (1):42-50 - get paper here
  • Fujita, M.K. & C. Moritz 2009. Origin and Evolution of Parthenogenetic Genomes in Lizards: Current State and Future Directions. Cytogenet Genome Res 127: 261-272
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • Goldberg, Stephen R., Charles R. Bursey, Laurie J. Vitt and Jeanette Arreola. 2013. Leposoma percarinatum (Muller's tegu) endoparasites. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 325
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Hoogmoed, M.S., & Lescure, J. 1975. An annotated checklist of the lizards of French Guiana, mainly based on two recent collections. Zool. Meded. (Leiden) 49(13): 141-172. - get paper here
  • Kuhn, M. & Schmidt, D. 2003. Parthenogenese beim Dunklen Tigerpython (Python molurus bivittatus). Reptilia (Münster) 8 (44): 78-82 - get paper here
  • Laguna, Marcia M.; Miguel T. Rodrigues, Rodrigo M. L. dos Santos, Yatiyo Yonenaga-Yassuda, Teresa C. S. Ávila-Pires, Marinus S. Hoogmoed, and Katia C. M. Pellegrino 2010. Karyotypes of a Cryptic Diploid Form of the Unisexual Leposoma percarinatum (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) and the Bisexual Leposoma ferreirai from the Lower Rio Negro, Amazonian Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 44 (1): 153–157 - get paper here
  • Langstroth, R.P. 2005. Adiciones probables y confirmadas para la saurofauna boliviana. Kempffiana 1 (1): 101-128
  • Mendes-Pinto, T. J. & S. Marques de Souza 2011. Preliminary assessment of amphibians and reptiles from Floresta Nacional do Trairão, with a new snake record for the Pará state, Brazilian Amazon. Salamandra 47 (4): 199-206 - get paper here
  • Mertens, Robert 1925. Zwei neue Eidechsen aus Venezuela. Senckenbergiana 7 (3/4): 75-78
  • Müller, L. 1923. Neue oder seltene Reptilien und Batrachier der Zoologischen Sammlung des bayrischen Staates. Zool. Anz. 57 (7/8): 145-156 - get paper here
  • Noble, G. K. 1923. New lizards from the Tropical Research Station British Guiana. Zoologica, 3: 301—305
  • Oliveira, D.P.; S.M. Souza; L. Frazão; A.P. Almeida; T. Hrbek 2014. Lizards from central Jatapú River, Amazonas, Brazil. Check List 10 (1): 46-53 - get paper here
  • Pellegrino, K.C.M. et al. 2003. Triploid karyotype of Leposoma percarinatum (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). Journal of Herpetology 37 (1): 197-199 - get paper here
  • Pellegrino, Katia C.M.; Miguel T. Rodrigues, D. James Harris, Yatiyo Yonenaga-Yassuda, Jack W. Sites Jr. 2011. Molecular phylogeny, biogeography and insights into the origin of parthenogenesis in the Neotropical genus Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae): Ancient links between the Atlantic Forest and Amazonia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 446–459 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues M T. 1997. A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Herpetologica 53 (3): 383-389. - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, Miguel T. and Teresa C. S. Avila-Pires 2005. New lizard of the genus Leposoma (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from the Lower Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 39 (4): 541-546 - get paper here
  • RODRIGUES, MIGUEL TREFAUT; MAURO TEIXEIRA JR., RENATO SOUSA RECODER, FRANCISCO DAL VECHIO, ROBERTA DAMASCENO & KATIA CRISTINA MACHADO PELLEGRINO 2013. A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with four fingers from the Atlantic Forest central corridor in Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa 3635 (4): 459–475 - get paper here
  • Ruibal, R. 1952. Revisionary notes of some South American Teiidae. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 106: 475-529 (477?)-529. - get paper here
  • Silva, F.M.; A.C. Menks; A.L.C. Prudente; J.C.L. Costa; A.E.M. Travassos; U. Galatti. 2011. Squamate Reptiles from municipality of Barcarena and surroundings, state of Pará, north of Brazil. Check List 7 (3): 220-226
  • Souza, Sergio Marques; Katia C.M. Pellegrino, Pedro M. Sales Nunes, Mauro Teixeira Junior, Marcelo Gordo, Vinícius T. de Carvalho, Alexandre Almeida, Deyla Paula de Oliveira, Luciana Frazão, Tomas Hrbek, Izeni Pires Farias, and Miguel Trefaut Rodrigu 2015. On the Discovery of Bisexual Populations of the Parthenogenetic Lizard Leposoma percarinatum (Gymnophthalmidae), with Insights into the Origin of Parthenogenesis in Leposoma South American Journal of Herpetology Aug 2015, Vol. 10, No. 2: 121-131. - get paper here
  • Uzzell, Thomas & Barry, John C. 1971. Leposoma percarinatum, a unisexual species related to L. guianense; and Leposoma ioanna, a new species from Pacific Coastal Colombia (Sauria, Teiidae). Postilla (154): 1-39 - get paper here
  • Vitt, L.; Magnusson, W.E.; Ávila-Pires, T.C. & Lima, A.P. 2008. Guide to the Lizards of Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Central Amazonia. Attema, Manaus, 180 pp.
 
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