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Lygosoma samajaya KARIN, FREITAS, SHONLEBEN, GRISMER, BAUER & DAS, 2018

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Lygosominae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymLygosoma samajaya KARIN, FREITAS, SHONLEBEN, GRISMER, BAUER & DAS 2018
Subdoluseps samajaya — FREITAS et al. 2019
Subdoluseps samajaya — GRISMER et al. 2019 
DistributionMalaysia (Borneo: W Sarawak)

Type locality: Sama Jaya Forest Reserve, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia (1.523683°N, 110.38793°E; WGS84; elevation 25 m  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: CAS 259777; field number SS 0137), an adult of unknown sex, collected on 24 June 2014 by Indraneil Das, Benjamin Karin, and Samuel Shonleben from a pitfall trap; Figs. 2–4). The specimen was spotted at the edge of the pitfall trap, and directed into the bucket by hand. Paratype. UNIMAS 9503; field number SS 0031). An adult of unknown sex, collected on 2 February 2013 by Samuel Shonleben and Indraneil Das from a pitfall trap at the foothills of Gunung Gumbang, Kuching Division, Sarawak, Malaysia (1.267°N, 110.050°E; WGS84; elevation 167 m; Figs. 2, 4). No tissue sample was collected. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Lygosoma samajaya sp. nov. is distinguished from all other south-east Asian congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) quinquecarinate dorsal and lateral scales; (2) 13 or 14 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; (3) 10 or 11 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; (4) paravertebral scale rows 61; (5) midbody scale rows 28–30; (6) lacking enlarged nuchals; (7) supranasals in medial contact; (8) paired frontoparietals; (8) seven supralabials; (9) six infralabials; (10) adult SVL 70 mm; and (11) tail shorter than SVL.

Comparisons. Here, we focus comparisons on the 17 congeners that occur in south-east Asia. As our phylogenetic analysis places the new species outside of the Indian radiation of Lygosoma (Fig. S1), we exclude Indian congeners from the analysis. Lygosoma samajaya sp. nov. differs from nearly all other Lygosoma in having five distinct keels on the dorsal scales, an uncommon feature in Lygosoma. Of the south-east Asian congeners, most have smooth dorsal scales—L. angeli (Smith, 1937), L. anguinum (Theobald, 1868), L. bampfyldei, L. corpulentum Smith, 1921, L. frontoparietale (Taylor, 1962), L. haroldyoungi (Taylor, 1962), L. isodactylum (Günther, 1864), L. koratense Smith, 1916, L. lineolatum, L. popae (Shreve, 1940), L. quadrupes (Linnaeus, 1766), L. tabonorum Heitz, Diesmos, Freitas, Ellsworth & Grismer, 2016; juveniles and subadults of one species possess pseudokeels (i.e., the optical illusion of keels underlying a smooth scale; sensu Ziegler et al. (2007))—L. boehmei Ziegler, Schmitz, Heidrich, Vu & Nguyen, 2007; two species usually possess smooth scales but occasionally show weak keels—L. bowringii and L. veunsaiensis Geissler, Hartmann, & Neang, 2012; and one species possesses tricarinate scales—L. opisthorhodum Werner, 1910. Only one other species of south-east Asian Lygosoma also possesses quinquecarinate scales, Lygosoma herberti from southern Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia, to which Lygosoma samajaya sp. nov. is most closely related. The new species is distinguished from L. herberti in possessing fewer lamellae under the fourth toe (13–14 vs. 15) and fourth finger (10–11 vs. 12), more paravertebral scale rows (61 vs. 54–58), and being slightly larger in adult body size (SVL 69–71 mm vs. 56–66 mm).

We further differentiate the new species from the south-east Asian congeners that possess some degree of dorsal scale keeling. Lygosoma samajaya sp. nov. is distinguished from L. boehmei by smaller body size (SVL 69– 71 mm vs. 91 mm), in possessing a tail shorter than SVL (vs. longer), six infralabials (vs. seven) possessing true keels (vs. pseudokeels); from L. bowringii in lacking enlarged nuchal scales (though some L. bowringii may also lack nuchals) and in coloration (sides same color as dorsal surface, fading to white vs. sides with red and yellow, fading to white) and in pigmentation patterns (sides solid vs. a lateral stripe and spotting); and from L. veunsaiensis by possessing supranasals in contact (vs. separated), seven supralabials (vs. five), six infralabials (vs. five), external ear openings present (vs. absent), 28–30 midbody scale rows (vs. 22), more lamellae under the fourth toe (13–14 vs. 9) and fourth finger (10–11 vs. 5).
The new species is easily distinguished from the two congeners known to occur on Borneo, L. bowringii and L. bampfyldei: from L. bowringii as above; and from L. bampfyldei in being much smaller in body size (SVL 69–71 vs. 110–142 mm), in possessing keeled (vs. unkeeled) dorsal scales, and in having fewer midbody scale rows (28– 30 vs. 38).
Four other species of Lygosoma (L. albopunctata, L. opisthorhodum, L. quadrupes, and L. tabonorum) occur in close enough proximity to Borneo (Sunda Shelf or the Philippines) to warrant further comparison beyond differences in carination. Lygosoma samajaya sp. nov. is further differentiated by the following characters: from L. albopunctata by showing a greater midbody scale row count (28–30 vs. 14) and larger body size (SVL 69–71 mm vs. 35–47 mm); from L. opisthorhodum by possessing quinquecarinate (vs. tricarinate) dorsal scales, in being larger in size (SVL 69–71 mm vs. SVL 45 mm), with tail shorter (vs. longer) than SVL, and in color pattern (uniform brown with dark anterolateral stripe vs. black-brown, brighter toward posterior, with a bright lateral stripe, starting 
Comment 
EtymologyThe species epithet samajaya is a proper noun in apposition that refers to the locality of collection of the holotype at the Sama Jaya Forest Reserve in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. This name draws attention to the importance of small urban rainforest parks in sustaining species diversity. 
References
  • FREITAS, ELYSE S.; ANIRUDDHA DATTA-ROY, PRAVEEN KARANTH, L. LEE GRISMER and CAMERON D. SILER 2019. Multilocus phylogeny and a new classification for African, Asian and Indian supple and writhing skinks (Scincidae: Lygosominae) Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2019, XX, 1–30. - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; EVAN S. H. QUAH, ZAHARIL DUZULKAFLY & PAUL YAMBUN 2018. On the taxonomy of Lygosoma bampfyldei Bartlett, 1895 (Squamata: Scincidae) with descriptions of new species from Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia and the resurrection of Lygosoma schneideri Werner, 1900. Zootaxa 4438 (3): 528–550 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; ZAHARIL DZUKAFLY, MOHD ABDUL MUIN, EVAN S. H. QUAH, BENJAMIN R. KARIN, SHAHRUL ANUAR, ELYSE S. FREITAS 2019. A new skink of the genus Subdoluseps (Hardwicke & Gray, 1828) from Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 4609 (2): 358–372 - get paper here
  • KARIN, BENJAMIN R.; ELYSE S. FREITAS, SAMUEL SHONLEBEN, L. LEE GRISMER, AARON M. BAUER, INDRANEIL DAS 2018. Unrealized diversity in an urban rainforest: A new species of Lygosoma (Squamata: Scincidae) from western Sarawak, Malaysia (Borneo) Zootaxa 4370 (4): 345-362 - get paper here
 
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