Lygosoma samajaya KARIN, FREITAS, SHONLEBEN, GRISMER, BAUER & DAS, 2018
Can you confirm these amateur observations of Lygosoma samajaya?
|Higher Taxa||Scincidae, Lygosominae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)|
|Synonym||Lygosoma samajaya KARIN, FREITAS, SHONLEBEN, GRISMER, BAUER & DAS 2018|
Subdoluseps samajaya — FREITAS et al. 2019
Subdoluseps samajaya — GRISMER et al. 2019
|Distribution||Malaysia (Borneo: W Sarawak)|
Type locality: Sama Jaya Forest Reserve, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia (1.523683°N, 110.38793°E; WGS84; elevation 25 m
|Types||Holotype: CAS 259777; field number SS 0137), an adult of unknown sex, collected on 24 June 2014 by Indraneil Das, Benjamin Karin, and Samuel Shonleben from a pitfall trap; Figs. 2–4). The specimen was spotted at the edge of the pitfall trap, and directed into the bucket by hand. Paratype. UNIMAS 9503; field number SS 0031). An adult of unknown sex, collected on 2 February 2013 by Samuel Shonleben and Indraneil Das from a pitfall trap at the foothills of Gunung Gumbang, Kuching Division, Sarawak, Malaysia (1.267°N, 110.050°E; WGS84; elevation 167 m; Figs. 2, 4). No tissue sample was collected.|
|Diagnosis||Diagnosis. Lygosoma samajaya sp. nov. is distinguished from all other south-east Asian congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) quinquecarinate dorsal and lateral scales; (2) 13 or 14 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; (3) 10 or 11 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; (4) paravertebral scale rows 61; (5) midbody scale rows 28–30; (6) lacking enlarged nuchals; (7) supranasals in medial contact; (8) paired frontoparietals; (8) seven supralabials; (9) six infralabials; (10) adult SVL 70 mm; and (11) tail shorter than SVL.|
Comparisons. Here, we focus comparisons on the 17 congeners that occur in south-east Asia. As our phylogenetic analysis places the new species outside of the Indian radiation of Lygosoma (Fig. S1), we exclude Indian congeners from the analysis. Lygosoma samajaya sp. nov. differs from nearly all other Lygosoma in having five distinct keels on the dorsal scales, an uncommon feature in Lygosoma. Of the south-east Asian congeners, most have smooth dorsal scales—L. angeli (Smith, 1937), L. anguinum (Theobald, 1868), L. bampfyldei, L. corpulentum Smith, 1921, L. frontoparietale (Taylor, 1962), L. haroldyoungi (Taylor, 1962), L. isodactylum (Günther, 1864), L. koratense Smith, 1916, L. lineolatum, L. popae (Shreve, 1940), L. quadrupes (Linnaeus, 1766), L. tabonorum Heitz, Diesmos, Freitas, Ellsworth & Grismer, 2016; juveniles and subadults of one species possess pseudokeels (i.e., the optical illusion of keels underlying a smooth scale; sensu Ziegler et al. (2007))—L. boehmei Ziegler, Schmitz, Heidrich, Vu & Nguyen, 2007; two species usually possess smooth scales but occasionally show weak keels—L. bowringii and L. veunsaiensis Geissler, Hartmann, & Neang, 2012; and one species possesses tricarinate scales—L. opisthorhodum Werner, 1910. Only one other species of south-east Asian Lygosoma also possesses quinquecarinate scales, Lygosoma herberti from southern Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia, to which Lygosoma samajaya sp. nov. is most closely related. The new species is distinguished from L. herberti in possessing fewer lamellae under the fourth toe (13–14 vs. 15) and fourth finger (10–11 vs. 12), more paravertebral scale rows (61 vs. 54–58), and being slightly larger in adult body size (SVL 69–71 mm vs. 56–66 mm).
We further differentiate the new species from the south-east Asian congeners that possess some degree of dorsal scale keeling. Lygosoma samajaya sp. nov. is distinguished from L. boehmei by smaller body size (SVL 69– 71 mm vs. 91 mm), in possessing a tail shorter than SVL (vs. longer), six infralabials (vs. seven) possessing true keels (vs. pseudokeels); from L. bowringii in lacking enlarged nuchal scales (though some L. bowringii may also lack nuchals) and in coloration (sides same color as dorsal surface, fading to white vs. sides with red and yellow, fading to white) and in pigmentation patterns (sides solid vs. a lateral stripe and spotting); and from L. veunsaiensis by possessing supranasals in contact (vs. separated), seven supralabials (vs. five), six infralabials (vs. five), external ear openings present (vs. absent), 28–30 midbody scale rows (vs. 22), more lamellae under the fourth toe (13–14 vs. 9) and fourth finger (10–11 vs. 5).
The new species is easily distinguished from the two congeners known to occur on Borneo, L. bowringii and L. bampfyldei: from L. bowringii as above; and from L. bampfyldei in being much smaller in body size (SVL 69–71 vs. 110–142 mm), in possessing keeled (vs. unkeeled) dorsal scales, and in having fewer midbody scale rows (28– 30 vs. 38).
Four other species of Lygosoma (L. albopunctata, L. opisthorhodum, L. quadrupes, and L. tabonorum) occur in close enough proximity to Borneo (Sunda Shelf or the Philippines) to warrant further comparison beyond differences in carination. Lygosoma samajaya sp. nov. is further differentiated by the following characters: from L. albopunctata by showing a greater midbody scale row count (28–30 vs. 14) and larger body size (SVL 69–71 mm vs. 35–47 mm); from L. opisthorhodum by possessing quinquecarinate (vs. tricarinate) dorsal scales, in being larger in size (SVL 69–71 mm vs. SVL 45 mm), with tail shorter (vs. longer) than SVL, and in color pattern (uniform brown with dark anterolateral stripe vs. black-brown, brighter toward posterior, with a bright lateral stripe, starting
|Etymology||The species epithet samajaya is a proper noun in apposition that refers to the locality of collection of the holotype at the Sama Jaya Forest Reserve in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. This name draws attention to the importance of small urban rainforest parks in sustaining species diversity.|
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