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Lygosoma siamensis SILER, HEITZ, DAVIS, FREITAS, AOWPHOL, TERMPRAYOON & GRISMER, 2018

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Lygosominae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Siamese Supple Skink 
SynonymLygosoma siamensis SILER, HEITZ, DAVIS, FREITAS, AOWPHOL, TERMPRAYOON & GRISMER 2018
Lygosoma quadrupes — HONDA et al. 2000: 453
Lygosoma quadrupes — ZIEGLER et al. 2007: 401
Lygosoma quadrupes — WAGNER et al. 2009: 4
Lygosoma quadrupes — DAS 2010: 240
Lygosoma quadrupes — GEISSLER et al. 2011: 1169 
DistributionCambodia, Laos, West Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

Type locality: Thailand, Pattani Province  
Reproductionoviparous; two or three eggs per clutch (Chan-ard et al., 2015). 
TypesHolotype: FMNH 177496 (field no. EHT 1390; Figs. 4, 5), adult male, collected on 7 June 1956 by E. H. Taylor.
Paratypes. One adult male (FMNH 176980), collected in December 1953 in Thailand, Chonburi Province by E. H. Taylor; two adult males (FMNH 177506, 177509) and one adult female (FMNH 177505), collected between 26 October 1953 and 26 October 1955 in Thailand, Kanchanaburi Province by E. H. Taylor; two adult females (FMNH 177495, 177497) collected on 7 June 1956 in Thailand, Pattani Province by E. H. Taylor; one adult male (FMNH 176979) collected on 15 September 1956 in Thailand, Phra Nakhon District by E. H. Taylor; one adult male (FMNH 177491) and one adult female (FMNH 177492) collected on 11 December 1955 in Thailand, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province by E. H. Taylor; one adult male (FMNH 177502) and one adult female (FMNH 177503), unknown date of collection, collected in Thailand, Yala Province by E. H. Taylor; one adult male (FMNH 152332), unknown date of collection, collected in Thailand by S. S. Flower; one adult male (MCZ 39280) and one adult female (MCZ 39281), unknown date of collection, collected in Thailand, Bangkok; one adult female (MCZ 39279), unknown date of collection, collected in Thailand, Bagnara, Pattani Province. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis.—Lygosoma siamensis can be distinguished from congeners by the following combination of morphological characters: 1) body size small (SVL 51.0–79.0 mm); 2) limb length short; 3) supralabials 6 or 7; 4) infralabials 5 or 6; 5) superciliaries 6–8; 6) supraoculars 4; 7) Finger III lamellae 4–6; 8) Toe IV lamellae 5–7; 9) midbody scale rows 26–28; 10) axilla–groin scale rows 88–98; 11) paravertebral scale rows 113–124; and 12) single, enlarged, fused frontoparietal (Tables 2 and 3).
Comparisons.—Lygosoma siamensis is phenotypically most sim- ilar to L. quadrupes sensu Linnaeus (1766) and L. tabonorum but can be distinguished from both based on a combination of characteristics. The new species differs from L. tabonorum by having more midbody (26–28 vs. 25 or 26) and paravertebral (113–124 vs. 106–111) scale rows and a tendency toward having more axilla–groin scale rows (88–98 vs. 83–90); and from L. quadrupes by having shorter relative forelimbs (FLL 2.3–4.9% SVL vs. 4.7–5.9%) and fewer midbody (26–28 vs. 25 or 26) and axilla– groin (88–98 vs. 99–101) scale rows (Tables 2 and 3).
Among the other species of Lygosoma recognized to occur in Southeast Asia (L. albopunctatum, L. angeli, L. anguinum, L. bampfyldei, L. boehmei, L. bowringii, L. corpulentum, L. frontopar- ietale, L. haroldyoungi, L. herberti, L. isodactylum, L. kinabatanga- nensis, L. koratense, L. lineolatum, L. opisthorhodum, L. peninsularae, L. popae, L. punctata, L. samajaya, L. schneideri, and L. veunsaiensis), L. siamensis differs
and relative limb lengths and a number of scale pattern characteristics (Tables 2 and 3). On the basis of body morphology, the new species can be distinguished from L. albopunctatum and L. veunsaiensis by having a larger body size (SVL 51.0–79.0 mm vs. 35.0–47.0 mm [L. albopunctatum], 33.6 mm [L. veunsaiensis]) and longer tail length (TL 50.0–74.0 mm vs. 33.0–37.0 mm [L. albopunctatum], 40.1 mm [L. veunsaiensis]); from L. frontoparietale by having a larger body size (SVL 51.0– 79.0 mm vs. 36.0–43.0 mm); from L. lineolatum and L. popae by having a longer tail length (TL 50.0–74.0 mm vs. 34.0–45.0 [L. lineolatum], 33.0–42.0 [L. popae]); from L. bampfyldei, L. boehmei, L. corpulentum, L. kinabatanganensis, L. koratense, L. peninsulare, and L. schneideri by having a smaller body size (SVL 51.0–79.0 mm vs. 110.0–119.0 mm [L. bampfyldei], 86.0 mm [L. boehmei], 97.8– 168.0 mm [L. corpulentum], 141.0 mm [L. kinabatanganensis], 101.0–106.0 mm [L. koratense], 119.0 mm [L. peninsulare], 129.0 mm [L. schneideri]) and shorter tail length (TL 50.0–74.0 mm vs. 75.0–130.0 mm [L. bampfyldei], 91.0 mm [L. boehmei], 97.6–159.8 mm [L. corpulentum], 93.0–95.0 mm [L. koratense], 150.0 mm [L. peninsulare], 96 mm [L. schneideri], original TL unknown but expected to be >74.0 mm [L. kinabatanganensis]); and from L. bampfyldei, L. haroldyoungii, L. isodactylum, L. kinabatanganensis, L. opisthorhodum, L. peninsularae, L. punctata, and L. schneideri by having a smaller body size (SVL 51.0–79.0 mm vs. 110.0–119.0 mm [L. bampfyldei], 114.8–148.0 mm [L. haroldyoungi], 82.5–117.0 mm [L. isodactylum], 141.0 mm [L. kinabatanganensis], 93.0 mm [L. opisthorhodum], 119.0 mm [L. peninsularae], 85.0 mm [L. punctata], 129.0 mm [L. schneideri]).
In comparing limb morphology, L. siamensis is distinguished from L. albopunctatum, L. bampfyldei, L. boehmei, L. corpulentum, L. frontoparietale, L. haroldyoungi, L. herberti, L. isodactylum, L. kinabatanganensis, L. koratense, L. peninsulare, L. samajaya, L. schneideri, and L. veunsaiensis by having shorter relative forelimb lengths (FLL/SVL 2.3–4.9% vs. 8.1–23.7% [L. albopunctatum], 15.0–21.0% [L. bampfyldei], 17.1% [L. boehmei], 12.7–22.7% [L. corpulentum], 8.4–9.9% [L. frontoparietale], 10.6–18.8% [L. har- oldyoungi], 10.6–11.5% [L. herberti], 10.6–18.8% [L. isodactylum], 25.0% [L. kinabatanganensis], 22.6–24.8% [L. koratense], 21.0% [L. peninsulare], 18.8–19.0% [L. samajaya], 17.5% [L. schneideri], 18.5% [L. veunsaiensis]) and shorter relative hind-limb lengths (HLL/ SVL 4.0–8.0% vs. 9.9–16.7% [L. albopunctatum], 17.0–32.0% [L. bampfyldei], 22.1% [L. boehmei], 9.8–19.6% [L. corpulentum], 15.3– 15.5% [L. frontoparietale], 9.8–13.9% [L. haroldyoungi], 12.5–16.6% [L. herberti], 9.8–13.9% [L. isodactylum], 25.0% [L. kinabatanga- nensis], 14.2–15.8% [L. koratense], 32.0% [L. peninsulare], 26.0– 26.2% [L. samajaya], 24.8% [L. schneideri], 12.8% [L. veunsaiensis]).
From L. bampfyldei, L. boehmei, L. corpulentum, L. haroldyoungi, L. herberti, L. isodactylum, L. kinabatanganensis, L. koratense, L. peninsulare, L. samajaya, and L. schneideri, L. siamensis differs by having a shorter head length (HL 3.4–5.1 mm vs. 16.6–18.8 mm [L. bampfyldei], 12.3 mm [L. boehmei], 16.9–30.3 mm [L. corpulentum], 15.2–18.1 mm [L. haroldyoungi], 6.8–8.8 mm [L. herberti] 11.7–14.0 mm [L. isodactylum], 23.8 mm [L. kinabatanga- nensis], 18.0–19.0 mm [L. koratense], 19.1 mm [L. peninsulare], 10.8–11.0 mm [L. samajaya], 21.1 mm [L. schneideri]) and shorter head width (HW 3.4–5.3 mm vs. 12.5–18.9 mm [L. bampfyldei], 10.5 mm [L. boehmei], 12.0–21.8 mm [L. corpulentum], 9.5–12.0 mm [L. haroldyoungi], 7.5–8.4 [L. herberti], 7.7–9.0 mm [L. isodactylum], 23.8–20.8 mm [L. kinabatanganensis], 13.0 mm [L. koratense], 14.5 mm [L. peninsulare], 7.9–9.0 mm [L. samajaya], 18.5 mm [L. schneideri]); and from L. angeli and L. frontoparietale by having a shorter head length (HL 3.4–5.1 mm vs. 9.4–12.1 mm [L. angeli], 5.5–6.1 mm [L. frontoparietale]).
On the basis of scale patterns and counts, the new species differs from L. albopunctatum, L. anguinum, L. herberti, and L. lineolatum by having a greater number of midbody (26–28 vs. 14 [L. albopunctatum], 20–25 [L. anguinum], 24 or 25 [L. herberti], 22– 24 [L. lineolatum]), axilla-groin (88–98 vs. 37–49 [L. albopuncta- tum], 69–76 [L. anguinum], 37 [L. herberti], 57–72 [L. lineolatum]), and paravertebral (113–124 vs. 59–71 [L. albopunctatum], 90–99 [L. anguinum], 54–58 [L. herberti], 78–93 [L. lineolatum]) scale rows; from L. bampfyldei, L. boehmei, L. corpulentum, L. isodactylum, L. kinabatanganensis, L. koratense, L. peninsulare, and L. schneideri by having fewer midbody (26–28 vs. 36–40 [L. bampfyldei], 32 [L. boehmei], 36–40 [L. corpulentum], 30–34 [L. isodactylum], 42 [L. kinabatanganensis], 32–34 [L. koratense], 41 [L. peninsulare], 45 [L. schneideri]) and more paravertebral (113–124 vs. 81–85 [L. bampfyldei], 66 [L. boehmei], 78–86 [L. corpulentum], 88–98 [L. isodactylum], 98 [L. kinabatanganensis], 63 [L. koratense], 87 [L. peninsulare], 95 [L. schneideri]) scale rows; from L. bowringii, L. frontoparietale, and L. popae by having a greater number of axilla–groin (88–98 vs. 21–46 [L. bowringii], 40 or 41 [L. frontoparietale], 68–72 [L. popae]) and paravertebral (113–124 vs. 51–71 [L. bowringii], 60 [L. frontoparietale], 90–96 [L. popae]) scale rows; from L. angeli by having fewer midbody scale rows (26–28 vs. 30); from L. veunsaiensis by having a greater number of midbody (26–28 vs. 22) and paravertebral (113–124 vs. 51) scale rows; and from L. punctata by having a greater number of paravertebral scale rows (113–124 vs. ? 76).
The new species further differs from L. albopunctatum, L. bampfyldei, L. boehmei, L. bowringii, L. corpulentum, L. frontopar- ietale, L. herberti, L. kinabatanganensis, L. koratense, L. peninsulare, L. schneideri, and L. samajaya by having fewer Finger III lamellae (4–6 vs. 8–10 [L. albopunctatum], 10 [L. bampfyldei], 8–10 [L. boehmei], 7–12 [L. bowringii], 9 or 10 [L. frontoparietale], 11 or 12 [L. herberti], 10 [L. kinabatanganensis], 9 [L. koratense], 11 [L. peninsulare], 10 [L. schneideri], 10 [L. samajaya]) and Toe IV (5–7 vs. 13–16 [L. albopunctatum], 17 [L. bampfyldei], 14 [L. boehmei], 10–17 [L. bowringii], 13–15 [L. frontoparietale], 15 [L. herberti, L. kinabatanganensis], 13 or 14 [L. koratense, L. samajaya], 16 [L. peninsulare, L. schneideri]) lamellae; and from L. anguinum, L. corpulentum, L. popae, L. punctata, and L. veunsaiensis by having fewer Toe IV lamellae (5–7 vs. 8 [L. anguinum], 11–15 [L. corpulentum], 8 or 9 [L. popae], 11–14 [L. punctata], 9 [L. veunsaiensis]) (Fig. 5).
Finally, L. siamensis can be distuingished from L. boehmei and L. koratense by having fewer infralabials (5 or 6 vs. 7 [L. boehmei], 7 [L. koratense]); from L. veunsaiensis by having a greater number of supralabials (6 or 7 vs. 5); from L. albopunctatum by the presence of a single, enlarged, fused frontoparietal (vs. distinct pair or lack of frontoparietals); and from L. frontoparietale by the presence of medial contact between enlarged, first chin shields (vs. separation) (Fig. 4). 
CommentHabitat: forested habitats at lower elevations; the species is semifossorial and has been reported from leaf litter substrates. 
EtymologyThe new species name was derived from the exonym ‘‘Siam,’’ a term formerly used as the name of Thailand. 
References
  • Das, I. 2010. A Field Guide to the Reptiles of Southeast Asia. New Holland, London. 376 pp. [book review in Sauria 33 (3): 51, and Russ. J. Herp. 18: 325] - get paper here
  • Geissler, Peter; Truong Quang Nguyen, Trung My Phung, Robert Wayne Van Devender, Timo Hartmann, Balázs Farkas, Thomas Ziegler and Wolfgang Böhme 2011. A review of Indochinese skinks of the genus Lygosoma Hardwicke & Gray, 1827 (Squamata: Scincidae), with natural history notes and an identification key. BIOLOGIA 66 (6): 1159-1176 - get paper here
  • Honda M., Ota H., Kobayashi, M.; Nabhitabhata, J.; Yong, H.-S. & Hikida, T. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships, character evolution, and biogeography of the subfamily Lygosominae (Reptilia: Scincidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 15 (3): 452-461 - get paper here
  • Siler, Cameron D.; Brendan B. Heitz, Drew R. Davis, Elyse S. Freitas, Anchalee Aowphol, Korkhwan Termprayoon and L. Lee Grismer 2018. New Supple Skink, Genus Lygosoma (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae), from Indochina and Redescription of Lygosoma quadrupes (Linnaeus, 1766). Journal of Herpetology Sep 2018, Vol. 52, No. 3: 332-347. - get paper here
  • Wagner, Philipp; Wolfgang Böhme; Olivier S. G. Pauwels & Andreas Schmitz 2009. A review of the African red-flanked skinks of the Lygosoma fernandi (BURTON, 1836) species group (Squamata: Scincidae) and the role of climate change in their speciation. Zootaxa 2050: 1-30 - get paper here
  • Ziegler, T; Schmitz, A; Heidrich, A; Vu, NT; Nguyen, QT 2007. A new species of Lygosoma (Squamata: Sauria: Scincidae) from the Central Truong Son, Vietnam, with notes on its molecular phylogenetic position. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 114 (2): 397-415 - get paper here
 
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