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Macroprotodon brevis (GÜNTHER, 1862)

IUCN Red List - Macroprotodon brevis - Near Threatened, NT

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesMacroprotodon brevis brevis (GÜNTHER 1862)
Macroprotodon brevis ibericus BUSACK & MCCOY 1990 
Common NamesWestern False Smooth Snake, Iberian False Smooth Snake 
SynonymCoronella brevis GÜNTHER 1862: 58
Macroprotodon maroccanus PETERS 1882: 27
Macroprotodon cucullatus brevis — BAUER et al. 1995: 72
Macroprotodon brevis — CARRANZA et al. 2004
Macroprotodon brevis — MONTORI et al. 2005
Macroprotodon brevis — SPEYBROECK 2007
Macroprotodon brevis — SCHLÜTER 2009
Macroprotodon brevis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 419

Macroprotodon brevis ibericus BUSACK & MCCOY 1990
Macroprotodon cucullatus ibericus — MALKMUS 1995
Macroprotodon cucullatus ibericus — VAND ER VOORT 2004
Macroprotodon brevis ibericus — CARRANZA et al. 2004
Macroprotodon brevis ibericus — LANTERMANN & LANTERMANN 2015 
DistributionMorocco, Gibraltar

Type locality: “small Island (without name) off the coast of Mogador”.

ibericus: Iberian Peninsula, Portugal (but WADE 1988 states that this area is inhabited by cucullatus), Spain  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.9.87 (R.T. Lowe, 1858–1861).
Holotype: CM 53178, collected 17 May 1970 by Stephen D. Busack [ibericus] 
CommentIllustration of M. c. brevis in Schlüter (2004).

CARRANZA et al. (2004) recognizes 4 species of Macroprotodon: M. cucullatus, M. brevis, M. mauritanicus, and M. abubakeri WADE 2001. They also recognized the subspecies M. b. brevis and M. b. ibericus and M. c. cucullatus and M. c. textilis while WADE (2001) synonymizes ibericus with brevis. In fact, CARRANZA et al. (2004) suggested that the textilis clade is paraphyletic with brevis and both could be renamed “textilis” as this is the older name.

Not in Mauritania fide Padial (pers. comm.). 
  • Bauer, A.M.; Günther,R. & Klipfel,M. 1995. The herpetological contributions of Wilhelm C.H. Peters (1815-1883). SSAR Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, 714 pp.
  • Busack S D. & MCCOY C J. 1990. Distribution variation and biology of Macroprotodon cucullatus (Reptilia: Colubridae: Boiginae). Annals of the Carnegie Museum. 59 (4): 261-286.
  • Busack, S.D. & Lawson, R. 2008. Morphological, mitochondrial DNA and allozyme evolution in representative amphibians and reptiles inhabiting each side of the Strait of Gibraltar. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 94, 445–461 - get paper here
  • Carranza, S.; E.N. Arnold; E. Wade and S. Fahd 2004. Phylogeography of the false smooth snakes, Macroprotodon (Serpentes, Colubridae): mitochondrial DNA sequences show European populations arrived recently from Northwest Africa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33 (3): 523-532 - get paper here
  • Günther, ALBERT 1862. On new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 9: 52-67. - get paper here
  • Köhler, G., et al. 2017. Macroprotodon brevis (Iberian False Smooth Snake) Reproduction and diet. Herpetological Review 48 (2): 452-453 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2010. Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Kosmos-Verlag, Stuttgart, 252 pp.
  • Kwet, Axel & Benny Trapp 2014. Liste der Reptilien Europas. Draco 15 (60): 72-79 - get paper here
  • Lantermann, Werner & Yvonne Lantermann 2015. Reptilien- und Amphibienfauna der Quinta do Barranco da Estrada im portugiesischen Alentejo – ein Reisebericht. Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (3): 44-48 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R. 2011. Talsperrenmarathon in Portugals Norden. Elaphe 19 (3): 38-43
  • Mediani, Mohamed; José Carlos Brito, Soumia Fahd 2015. Atlas of the amphibians and reptiles of northern Morocco: updated distribution and patterns of habitat selection. Basic and Applied Herpetology 29: - get paper here
  • Montori, Albert; Gustavo A. Llorente, Miguel Ángel Alonso-Zarazaga, Óscar Arribas, Enrique Ayllón, Jaime Bosch, Salvador Carranza, Miguel Ángel Carretero, Pedro Galán, Mario García-París, David James Harris, Javier Lluch, Rafael Márquez, José Antonio 2005. Lista patrón actualizada de la herpetofauna española. Asociación Herpetológica Española, 45 pp.
  • Perez, C. & K. Bensusan 2005. A Guide to the Upper Rock Nature Reserve. Gibraltar Ornithological & Natural History Society, Gibraltar, 28 pp.
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1882. Eine neue Art oder bemerkenswerthe Varietät der Schlangengattung Macroprotodon Guichenot, M. maroccanus. Sitzungsber. Ges. naturf. Freunde Berlin 1882 (2): 27 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, U. 2009. Die Schlangenfauna Europas. Draco 10 (39): 4-21 - get paper here
  • Speybroeck, J. 2007. Enkele bedenkingen bij de Nederlandse namenlijst van de Europese herpetofauna en een reactie op Bauer. Lacerta 65 (1): 16-31 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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