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Magliophis exiguum (COPE, 1862)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesMagliophis exiguum exiguum (COPE 1863)
Magliophis exiguum subspadix SCHWARTZ 1967 
Common NamesE: Ground Snake
Spanish: Culebrita de jardín 
SynonymDromicus exiguus COPE 1862: 79
Dromicus exiguus — GARMAN 1887: 282
Dromicus exiguus — BOULENGER 1894: 126
Arrhyton exiguus — MAGLIO 1970
Arrhyton exiguum — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 585
Arrhyton exiguum — CROTHER 1999
Magliophis exiguus — ZAHER et al. 2009
Magliophis exiguum — HEDGES et al. 2009
Magliophis exiguum — WALLACH et al. 2014: 423

Magliophis exiguum exiguum (COPE 1863)
Arrhyton exiguum exiguum — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 586
Magliophis exiguum exiguum — HEDGES et al. 2009

Magliophis exiguus subspadix SCHWARTZ 1967
Arrhyton exiguum subspadix — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 586
Magliophis exiguus subspadix — HEDGES et al. 2009 
DistributionPuerto Rico Bank; US and British Virgin Islands.

exiguum: U.S. and British Virgin Is.: Isla Culebra, St. Thomas, Hassel Isl., Tortola, Peter Isl., Virgin Gorda, Anegada [HR 30: 112]. Type locality: St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands; restricted to St. Thomas by Schwartz, 1967d.

subspadix: southwestern Puerto Rico, from the vicinity of Parguera east to Playa de Arroyo. Type locality: “7.0 km E Guánica, Puerto Rico.”  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: Unlocated.
Holotype: MCZ 81121 [subspadix] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Species in this genus have 19 midbody scale rows, 137–165 ventrals, 71–102 subcaudals, no apical scale pits, eight upper labials, and nine lower labials (Table 2). Magliophis differs from each of the other alsophiine genera in at least one of those characters.

Diagnosis (exiguus): A subspecies of D. exiguus characterized by small size (males to 291 mm, females to 312 mm snout-vent length), low number of ventrals (137 to 145 in males, 138 to 148 in females), ventrals / subcaudals low (214 to 235 in males, 212 to 232 in females), no or very few dark spots in the dorsal zone, ventral angulate dark markings usually absent bat occasionally present and restricted, venter not heavily stippled, and at least unilateral absence of a loreal
in about one third of the specimens. (Schwartz 1967: 4)

Diagnosis (subspadix): A subspecies of D. exiguus characterized by small size (both sexes to 283 mm snout-vent length), moderate number of ventrals (143 to 150 in males, 145 to 152 in females), ventrals / subcaudals moderate (222 to 238 in males, 224 to 231 in females), dorsal zone usually unmarked except for a short and much fragmented nuchal line, adjacent dark blotching between this line and the stripe absent, a median dorsal line on the posterior part of the body and along the tail, ventral angulate markings very obscure to absent, venter not heavily stippled, aiid only occasionally without loreal scales. (Schwartz 1967: 9) 
CommentFor illustrations see Stejneger, 1904; Schmidt, 1928; Schwartz, 1967; Philibosian and Yntema, 1977; Rivero, 1978; MacLean, 1982.

Arrhyton exiguus stahli has been elevated to full species status.

Type species: Dromicus exiguus COPE 1863 is the type species of the genus Magliophis ZAHER et al. 2009. 
Etymology 
References
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1862. Synopsis of the species of Holcosus and Ameiva, with diagnoses of new West Indian and South American Colubridae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14: 60-82. - get paper here
  • Crother, Brian I. 1999. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG WEST INDIAN XENODONTINE SNAKES (SERPENTES; COLUBRIDAE) WITH COMMENTS ON THE PHYLOGENY OF SOME MAINLAND XENODONTINES. Contemporary Herpetology 2 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286. - get paper here
  • Hedges, S. Blair; Arnaud Couloux; Vidal, Nicolas 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of West Indian racer snakes of the Tribe Alsophiini (Squamata, Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae). Zootaxa 2067: 1-28 - get paper here
  • MacLean, W.P. 1982. Reptiles and amphibians of the Virgin Islands. MacMillan Caribbean, London: vii + 54 pp.
  • Maglio, Vincent J. 1970. West Indian Xenodontine colubrid snakes: Their probable origin, phylogeny, and zoogeography. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 141 (1): 1-54 - get paper here
  • Philibosian, R. and Yntema, J.A. 1977. Annotated checklist of the birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians of the Virgin Islands & Puerto Rico. Information Services, Frederiksted, St. Croix, 48 pp.
  • Rios-López, N. & Aide, T.M. 2007. Herpetofaunal dynomics during secondary succession. Herpetologica 63 (1): 35-50 - get paper here
  • Rivero, J.A. 1978. Los anfibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico. M. Pareja Montana, 16, Barcelona, Espafia: x + 152 + 148pp.
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1928. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Amphibians and land reptiles of Porto Rico, with a list of those reported from the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences 10 (1):160 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. 1967. A review of the genus Dromicus in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Stahlia 9: 1-14
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Stejneger, L. 1904. The herpetology of Porto Rico. Rept. United States Natl. Mus. 1902: 549-724.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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