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Malayotyphlops luzonensis (TAYLOR, 1919)

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Higher TaxaTyphlopidae (Asiatyphlopinae), Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesLuzon Worm Snake 
SynonymTyphlops luzonensis TAYLOR 1919: 105
Typhlops luzonensis — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 109
Typhlops lozonensis [sic] — BROWN et al. 2000: 190
Typhlops luzonensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 766
Malayotyphlops luzonensis — HEDGES et al. 2014
Malayotyphlops luzonensis — WYNN et al. 2016 
DistributionPhilippines (Luzon, Negros, Marinduque, Cebu).

Type locality: “low on side of Mount Maquiling, Luguna, Luzon, Philippines”  
TypesHolotype: CM. 2653. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). Species of Malayotyphlops have (1) eye, distinct (rarely indistinct), (2) snout, rounded, (3) head scale arrangement, non-circular, (4) frontorostral, absent, (5) nasal, incompletely divided (sometimes completely divided), (6) nasal suture origin, 2nd supralabial (rarely, 1st supralabial), (7) suboculars or subpreoculars, absent (rarely present), (8) postoculars, 2–4 (average, 2.75), (9) preocular-labial contact, supralabials 2 & 3 or 3rd only (rarely 2nd only), (10) midbody scale rows, 24–30 (average, 26.8), (11) scale row reduction, present, (12) total scale rows, 300–461 (average, 367), (13) caudals, 9–14 (average, 11.9), (14) maximum total length, 122–445 (average, 256) mm, (15) total length/midbody diameter, 31–58 (average, 42.0), (16) total length/tail length, 28–71 (average, 51.8), (17) dorsal color, variable (brown, gray-brown, reddish brown, greenish-black, black), (18) ventral color, vari- able (cream, yellowish, red, pink, pinkish-yellow), (19) dorsum darker than venter, (20) overall, patternless or with longitudinal lines, series of spots, or collar (Tables 1–2); only one species is included in the molecular phylogeny (Fig. 1).
In lacking a protrusible hemipenis and retrocloacal sacs (McDowell 1974), Malayotyphlops is separated from most other blindsnakes occurring in Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Australasia, and the western Pacific: Acuto- typhlops, Anilios, Cyclotyphlops, Ramphotyphlops, and Sundatyphlops. From other genera of Asiatyphlopinae, Ma- layotyphlops differs from Acutotyphlops in lacking a frontorostral and from Cyclotyphlops in having non-circular head scales (versus circular arrangement). It differs from Grypotyphlops in lacking subocular scales. It differs from Cyclotyphlops and Indotyphlops in having more postoculars (2.75 versus 1.0–1.03; averages). It differs from Anilios, Cyclotyphlops, Indotyphlops, Ramphotyphlops, Sundatyphlops, and Xerotyphlops in having higher average midbody scale rows (26.8 versus 19.4–23.5). It differs from Anilios, Grypotyphlops, and Sundatyphlops in having fewer total scale rows (367 versus 466–496, averages) and smaller body size (TL = 256 versus 353–630; averages). See also comments below regarding other potential diagnostic characters [HEDGES et al. 2014: 38]. For an alternative diagnosis see PYRON & WALLACH 2014: 55. 
CommentHas been synonymized with T. ruber by MCDOWELL (1974)

Type species: Typhlops luzonensis TAYLOR 1919: 105 is the type species of the genus Malayotyphlops HEDGES et al. 2014. 
EtymologyThe generic name is a masculine compound noun formed from the adjective malayanus (a, um; i.e., ‘from the Malay Archipelago’) and the Greek noun typhlops (the blind). The species is named after the ype locality. 
  • Brown,R.M.; McGuire, J.A.; Ferner,J.W.; Icarangal Jr., N. & Kennedy, R.S. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Luzon island, II: preliminary report on the herptofauna of Aurora Memorial national Park, Philippines. Hamadryad 25 (2): 175-195
  • Ferner, John W., Rafe M. Brown, Rogelio V. Sison and Robert S. Kennedy 2000. The amphibians and reptiles of Panay Island, Philippines. Asiatic Herpetological Research 9: 1-37 - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B., Marion, A.B., Lipp, K.M., Marin, J. & Vidal, N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • McDowell, S. B. 1974. A catalogue of the snakes of New Guinea and the Solomons, with special reference to those in the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Part l. Scolecophidia. Journal of Herpetology 8 (1): 1-57 - get paper here
  • Pyron, R.A. & Wallach, V. 2014. Systematics of the blindsnakes (Serpentes: Scolecophidia: Typhlopoidea) based on molecular and morphological evidence. Zootaxa 3829 (1): 001–081
  • SUPSUP, Christian E.; Nevong M. PUNA, Augusto A. ASIS, Bernard R. REDOBLADO, Maria Fatima G. PANAGUINIT, Faith M. GUINTO, Edmund B. RICO, Arvin C. DIESMOS, Rafe M. BROWN and Neil Aldrin D. MALLARI 2016. Amphibians and Reptiles of Cebu, Philippines: The Poorly Understood Herpetofauna of an Island with Very Little Remaining Natural Habitat Asian Herpetological Research 2016, 7(3): 151–179 DOI: 10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.150049 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E.H. 1919. New or rare Philippine reptiles. Philippine Journal of Science 14: 105-125
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wynn, Addison H.; Arvin C. Diesmos, and Rafe M. Brown 2016. Two New Species of Malayotyphlops from the Northern Philippines, with Redescriptions of Malayotyphlops luzonensis (Taylor) and Malayotyphlops ruber (Boettger) Journal of Herpetology 50 (1): 157-168. - get paper here
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