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Manouria emys (SCHLEGEL & MÜLLER, 1844)

IUCN Red List - Manouria emys - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaTestudinidae, Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
SubspeciesManouria emys emys (SCHLEGEL & MÜLLER 1844)
Manouria emys phayrei (BLYTH 1854) 
Common NamesE: Brown Tortoise
G: Braune hinterindische Landschildkröte 
SynonymTestudo emys SCHLEGEL & MÜLLER (in TEMMINCK) 1844
Testudo emydoides DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1851 (nom. subst.)
Manouria fusca GRAY 1854
Manouria fusca — GRAY 1855: 68
Teleopus luxatus LE CONTE 1854
Manouria fusca GRAY 1861: 215
Manouria emys — THEOBALD 1868: 10
Testudo emys — BOULENGER 1889
Testudo emys — MELL 1938
Geochelone emys — PRITCHARD 1967
Manouria emys — OBST 1985
Geochelone (Manouria) emys — ALDERTON 1988
Manouria emys — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 457
Manouria emys — COX et al. 1998: 133
Manouria emys — TTWG 2014: 404

Manouria emys phayrei (BLYTH 1854)
Testudo phayrei BLYTH 1853
Testudo (Scapia) falconeri GRAY 1869
Testudo nutapundi REIMANN 1979 (in NUTAPHAND 1979)
Geochelone nutapundi — NUTAPHAND 1979 (fide ERNST & BARBOUR 1989)
Manouria emys phayrei — BOUR 1998
Manouria emys phayrei — MURTHY 2010: 24 
DistributionIndia (Assam), Bangladesh,
Myanmar (= Burma), Tailand and Malaysia,
Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo)

emys: S Tahiland, Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo; Type locality: Sumatra

phayrei: N/W Thailand to NE India; Type locality: Arakan; Tenasserim Provinces’.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesLectotype: RMNH 3808 (HOOGMOED & CRUMLY, 1984).
Syntypes: ZSI 813 and 15492; Lectotype: Muséum de Calcutta; non localisé actuellement, fide BOUR 1998/2002 [phayrei] 
Diagnosis 
CommentM. e. emys has separated pectoral scutes while M. e. phayrei has joined pectoral scutes.

Type species: Manouria fusca GRAY 1854 is the type species of the genus Manouria GRAY 1852: 1. 
EtymologyManouria emys phayrei has been named after Sir Arthur Purves Phayre (1812-1885), British army officer in India who became Commissioner of British Burma. 
References
  • Anderson,J. 1871. On Testudo Phayrei, Theob. & Dr. Gray. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 8: 324-330 - get paper here
  • Blyth,E. 1854. Notices and descriptions of various reptiles, new or little-known. Part I. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 22 [1853]: 639-655 - get paper here
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Bour, R. 1998. Histoire du genre Manouria Gray, 1854, et des espèces actuelles incluses. Manouria 1 (1): 1-9 [2002?]
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Choudhury, A. U. 1996. Taxonomy of the brown hill tortoise Manouria emys (Schlegel and Muller) and its distribution in Indian subcontinent. Cheetal 35 (3-4): 36-39.
  • Choudhury, Anwaruddin 2001. Some chelonian records from Mizoram. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 92 (2):184-190 - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Das, Abhijit; Uttam Saikia, B. H. C. K. Murthy, Santanu Dey and Sushil K. Dutta 2009. A herpetofaunal inventory of Barail Wildlife Sanctuary and adjacent regions, Assam, north-eastern India. Hamadryad 34 (1): 117 – 134
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  • DeRussy, Aerin; Hurst, Kimberly; Schaffer, Kristine; Pu, Zhichao; Green, Linda E.; Mendelson, Joseph R. 2013. Social behaviour in the context of a limited resource in juvenile tortoises (Manouria emys). The Herpetological Journal 23 (3): 171-173 - get paper here
  • Eggenschwiler, U. 2003. Manouria emys phayrei - Success at keeping and breeding the little-known Burmese Brwon Tortoise. Reptilia (GB) (29): 43-50 - get paper here
  • Eggenschwiler, U. 2005. Die Braune Landschildkröte Manouria emys phayrei (BLYTH 1853) - Haltung und Vermehrung einer recht wenig bekannten Schildkröte. Reptilia (Münster) 10 (53): 71-79 - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
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  • Gray, J.E. 1861. On the genus Manouria and its affinities. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 7: 215-217 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1855. Description of a new genus and some new species of tortoises. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) 15: 67-69 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1871. On Testudo phayrei and Scapia Falconeri. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 7: 445-447 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Chan K. Onn, Jesse L. Grismer, Perry L. Wood, Jr., and A. Norhayati 2010. A CHECKLIST OF THE HERPETOFAUNA OF THE BANJARAN BINTANG, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA. Russ. J. Herpetol. 17 (2): 147-160 - get paper here
  • Grossmann,W. & Tillack,F. 2001. Bemerkungen zur Herpetofauna des Khao Lak, Phang Nga, thailändische Halbinsel. Teil II: Reptilia: Serpentes; Testudines; Diskussion. Sauria 23 (1): 25-40 - get paper here
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  • Mell,R. 1938. Beiträge zur Fauna Sinica. VI. Aus der Biologie chinesischer Schildkröten. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, N.F., 7 (3): 390-475.
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 2010. The reptile fauna of India. B.R. Publishing, New Delhi, 332 pp.
  • Nutaphand, W, 1979. The Turtles of Thailand. Bangkok (Siamfarm Zool. Garden), 222 pp.
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; David, P.; Chimsunchart, C. & Thirakhupt, K. 2003. Reptiles of Phetchaburi Province, Western Thailand: a list of species, with natural history notes, and a discussion on the biogeography at the Isthmus of Kra. Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 3 (1): 23-53 - get paper here
  • Pauwels,O.S.G. et al. 2000. Herpetological investigations in Phang-Nga Province, southern Peninsular Thailand, with a list of reptile species and notes on their biology. Dumerilia 4 (2): 123-154 - get paper here
  • Platt, Steven G., Kalyar Platt, Win Ko Ko, Khin Myo Myo, Me Me Soe, Brian D. Horne and Thomas R. Rainwater. 2015. Manouria emys phayrei (Asian brown tortoise) fire scarring. Herpetological Review 46 (1): 83-85
  • Pritchard, P.C.H. & Trebbau, P. 1984. Phrynops (Batrachemys) zuliae new species. In: The Turtles of Venezuela, pp. 135-142
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