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Marinussaurus curupira PELOSO, PELLEGRINO, RODRIGUES & ÁVILA-PIRES, 2011

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymMarinussaurus curupira PELOSO, PELLEGRINO, RODRIGUES & ÁVILA-PIRES 2011 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas)

Type locality: “Ramal km 27,” Iranduba, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: INPA 19855 (Field Number, Ponte 73; fig. 1); adult male, collected on August 30, 2007, by. V.T. Carvalho.
Paratype: INPA 19856 (Field Number, Ponte 41; figs. 2, 3); adult male, collected at Sítio Bom Lugar (Renato Cintra), Iranduba, Amazonas, Brazil (3°07␣00␣S; 60°19␣01␣W), on August 27, 2007, by V.T. Carvalho. 
CommentType species: Marinussaurus curupira is the type species of the genus Marinussaurus PELOSO, PELLEGRINO, RODRIGUES & ÁVILA-PIRES` 2011.

For diagnostic morphological characters distinguishing Marinussaurus, Amapasaurus, Anotosaura, Arthrosaura, Colobosauroides, Dryadosaura,Ecpleopus, Kaieteurosaurus, Leposoma, and Pantepuisaurus see Table 2 in PELOSO et al. 2011.

Diagnosis (genus): A medium-sized Gymnophthalmidae with robust head, elongate body, well- developed pentadactyl limbs, and tail distinctly longer than body. Frontonasal single; two pre- frontals; frontal large; frontoparietals absent; interparietal and parietals present, forming an almost straight line posteriorly; nasals divided; loreal and frenocular present; few temporals; three pairs of chin shields, none reaching oral border. Dorsal scales hexagonal, longer than wide, with angulate to nearly round posterior margin, smooth, imbricate. Lateral scales narrower than dorsals, laterally imbricate, with round or straight posterior margin. Ventral scales quadrangular, slightly imbricate, smooth. Precloacal and femoral pores present in males (females unknown); pores between three or four small scales.

Diagnosis: The same as generic definition plus the following additions: Maximum SVL (considering the two known specimens) 56.2 mm. Limbs relatively short and robust; all digits clawed. Three supraoculars; interparietal shorter than parietals; five occipitals of nearly the same size; few temporals (5–6); loreal large, in contact with supralabials, frenocular small; third pair of chin shields with a short medial contact, almost totally separated by two enlarged pregular scales, and in contact with fourth and fifth infralabials. It is further characterized by having 29 transverse rows of hexagonal, slightly imbricate, smooth dorsal scales between interparietal and posterior level of hind limbs; 20 transverse rows of quadrangular, slightly imbricate, smooth ventrals between collar and preanals; 30–31 scales around midbody; three femoral pores and two preanal pores on each side in males (females unknown); preanal pores separated medially by the anterior preanal scale; preanal plate formed by an enlarged anterior, and five posterior scales; 7–8 lamellae under fourth finger, some divided, and 13 under fourth toe, all divided. 
EtymologyEtymology (genus): The generic name Marinussaurus is given in honor of Marinus S. Hoogmoed, for his great contribution to the knowledge of the Amazonian fauna, for his friendship, and eternal willingness to teach. The genus is male in gender.

Etymology: The specific name is given after the Curupira, a mythological creature known from many regions in South America (e.g., Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay). The most common versions of the legend regard the Curupira as an anthropomorphic creature of short height, with dark skin and with the feet pointed backward. The Curupira protects the forest and its inhabitants, severely punishing those who hunt for pleasure or who kill breeding females or defenseless juveniles. In the Amazonian region of Brazil the legend is vivid in the minds of people of riverside communities and the Curupira is sometimes much feared. The Curupira is also known as Curupi (in Argentina). 
References
  • Peloso, Pedro L.V.; Katia C. M. Pellegrino, Miguel T. Rodrigues, and Teresa C.S. Ávila-Pires 2011. Description and Phylogenetic Relationships of a New Genus and Species of Lizard (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from the Amazonian Rainforest of Northern Brazil. American Museum Novitates (3713): 1-24 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A. & SILVANA AMARAL 2017. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. IV. Alopoglossidae, Gymnophthalmidae Zootaxa 4269 (2): 151-196
 
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