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Mauremys reevesii (GRAY, 1831)

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Reeves’ Turtle
G: Chinesische Dreikielschildkröte
megalocephala: E: Chinese Broad-headed Pond Turtle, Big-headed Reeves’ turtle
megalocephala: G: Grosskopf-Chinaschildkröte 
SynonymEmys reevesii GRAY 1831
Emys Reevesii — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 313
Emys vulgaris picta SCHLEGEL 1840: 127 (not E. picta SCHWEIGGER)
Emys japonica DUMÉRIL & DUMÉRIL 1851 (not of SCHLEGEL)
Emys japonica — DUMÉRIL 1852: 220
Geoclemys reevesii — GRAY 1855: 18
Damonia reevesii — GRAY 1869: 194
Damonia unicolor GRAY 1873: 78
Damonia reevesii — GRAY 1873: 148
Clemmys unicolor — SCLATER 1873: 517
Emys reevesii — GÜNTHER 1888: 165
Damonia reevesii — BOULENGER 1889: 95
Damonia reevesii var. unicolor — BOULENGER 1889: 96
Geoclemys reevesii — STEJNEGER 1907: 497
Geoclemys grangeri SCHMIDT 1927
Geoclemys paracaretta CHANG 1929
Chinemys reevesii — SMITH 1931
Chinemys megalocephala FANG 1934
Geoclemys papacaretta [sic] — FANG 1934
Geoclemmys [sic] reevesii — GLASS 1946
Geoclemys reevesi — SHANNON 1956
Chinemys megalocephala — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Chinemys reevesii — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Chinemys reevesii — IVERSON 1992: 108
Mauremys pritchardi MCCORD 1997 (part.)
Chinemys reevesii — OBST 2003: 17
Mauremys reevesii — FELDHAM & PARHAM 2004
“Mauremys megalocephala” — FELDHAM & PARHAM 2004 (see note)
Chinemys megalocephala — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2004
Chinemys reevesi — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2004
Chinemys reevesi — GORIS & MAEDA 2004
Mauremys reevesii — BUSKIRK et al. 2005
Mauremys reevesii — CHEN & LUE 2010 
DistributionJapan (Honshu, Kyushu) [?], Korea, Taiwan, China (south of the Yangtze River west to Canton: Sichuan, Shaanxi, Hubei, Henan, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hong Kong, Fujian), Timor-Leste.

"The three main islands of Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku, and many of the smaller offshore islands, including Sadogashima, Oki, Tsushima, Iki, Awajishima, and the Goto Archipelago” (Goris and Maeda 2004: 139)

Type locality: “China”

megalocephala: China (Nanking region, Hubei, Henan, Hebei, Jiangxi, Hunan), SW North Korea, NW South Korea, Japan (Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku, Honshu); Type locality: "hillsides of the vicinity of Nanking City," Jiangsu Province, China.

pritchardi: China (Yunnan), Myanmar (= Burma)  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: unlocated (fide Iverson 1992: 108)
Holotype: MASN, according to Fang 1934 [megalocephala]
Holotype: AMNH R23481 [Geoclemys grangeri Schmidt, 1925] 
Diagnosis 
CommentSynonymy partly after STEJNEGER 1907 and Rhodin et al. 2010. IVERSON et al. (1989) synonymized Chinemys megalocephala with C. reevesii. However, Guo, et al. (1997) noted karyotype differences between these two forms that Ernst et al. (2000) suggested may represent subspecies differences. Not listed by OBST (2003) in his recent list of Geoemydidae. BARTH et al. (2003) found that C. megalocephala and C. reevesii may be synonymous. They proposed 2 possibilities: (a) both species may be identical, (b) C. megalocephala may be a hybrid between related species. FELDHAM & PARHAM (2004) agree that “M. megalocephala” is probably a diet-induced variant of M. reevesii (Iverson et al., 1989; Barth et al., 2002).

Wink et al. (2001) suggested that M. pritchardi is a hybrid between M. mutica and Chinemys reevesii. Yasukawa et al. (1992) reported a hybrid between Mauremys japonica and Chinemys reevesii. Hybrids between Chinemys reevesii and Cuora amboinensis kamaroma have been described by GALGON & FRITZ (2002). Hybrids between Cyclemys (= Mauremys) reevesii and Sacalia quadriocellata have been reported by BUSKIRK et al. (2005). FONG & CHEN (2010) reported hybrids between O. (Mauremys) sinensis x Mauremys reevesii.

Mauremys pritchardi is only known from the pet trade. DNA data from SPINKS et al. (2004) is consistent with the hypothesis that M. pritchardi is a hybrid between a female M. mutica and another species. However, the SPINKS data are also consistent with the interpretation that M. pritchardi is a recently derived member of the genus Mauremys, and that M. mutica is composed of more than one species.

Distribution: Not (natively) in Japan according to MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI (2004). Japaense populations have been introduced from neighboring countries (SUZUKI et al. 2011).

NCBI taxonomy ID: 260622 (megalocephala)

Habitat: freshwater (Rivers, swamps, ponds) 
EtymologyNamed after John Russell Reeves (1804-1877), naturalist and collector who sent specimens of plants and animals back to Britain. Reeves was employed by the East India Company. 
References
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