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Micruroides euryxanthus (KENNICOTT, 1860)

IUCN Red List - Micruroides euryxanthus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesMicruroides euryxanthus australis ZWEIFEL & NORRIS 1955
Micruroides euryxanthus euryxanthus (KENNICOTT 1860)
Micruroides euryxanthus neglectus ROZE 1967 
Common NamesE: Western Coral Snake
euryxanthus: Arizona Coral Snake
G: Arizona-Korallenotter 
SynonymElaps euryxanthus KENNICOTT 1860: 337
Elaps euryxanthus — GARMAN 1884: 107
Micruroides euryxanthus — SCHMIDT 1928
Micruroides euryxanthus — STEBBINS 1985: 222
Micruroides euryxanthus — LINER 1994
Micruroides euryxanthus — CROTHER et al. 2012
Micruroides euryxanthus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 440

Micruroides euryxanthus australis ZWEIFEL & NORRIS 1955: 238
Micruroides euryxanthus australis ZWEIFEL & NORRIS 1955
Micruroides euryxanthus australis — TANNER 1985: 661
Micruroides euryxanthus australis — WELCH 1994: 77

Micruroides euryxanthus euryxanthus (KENNICOTT 1860)
Elaps euryxanthus KENNICOTT 1860
Micruroides euryxanthus euryxanthus — WELCH 1994: 77
Micruroides euryxanthus euryxanthus — CROTHER 2000: 66

Micruroides euryxanthus neglectus ROZE 1967
Micruroides euryxanthus neglectus ROZE 1967
Micrurus euryxanthus neglectus — WEBB 1984
Micruroides euryxanthus neglectus — WELCH 1994: 77 
DistributionUSA (Arizona, SW New Mexico),
Mexico (Sonora, Sinaloa, Jalisco)

euryxanthus: Arizona, New Mexico, Chihuahua, Sonora; Type locality: Sonora.

australis: Mexico (SW Chihuahua, S Sonora, N Sinaloa); Type locality: "Guirocoba, Sonora, Mexico."

neglectus: Mexico (north of Mazatlan, Sinaloa); Type locality: "Sixteen and three tenth miles north-northwest of Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico." Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: USNM 1122
Holotype: MVZ 50839, adult male; paratypes: MVZ, AMNH [australis]
Holotype: UMMZ 114637, adult male [neglectus] 
CommentVenomous!

Morphological and biochemical evidence for the separation of Micruroides and Micrurus was presented by SLOWINSKI (1995).

Type species: Elaps euryxanthus KENNICOTT 1860: 337 is the type species of the genus Micruroides SCHMIDT 1928. 
EtymologyETYMOLOGY (genus): The name refers to the taxon's similarity to the genus Micrurus by the Greek termination -oides, meaning like or in shape of; its gender is masculine. 
References
  • Bezy, R. L., P. C. Rosen, T. R. Van Devender, and E. F. Enderson. 2017. Southern distributional limits of the Sonoran Desert herpetofauna along the mainland coast of northwestern Mexico. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(1): 138–167 - get paper here
  • Bezy, Robert L. and Charles J. Cole 2014. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Madrean Archipelago of Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (3810): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Braswell, Alvin L., Weems, Janice M. and Akcali, Christopher K. 2017. Micruroides euryxanthus (Sonoran Coralsnake) Predation Herpetological Review 48 (1): 213-214 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Cochran, Chip and Duerre, Doug 2016. Geographic Distribution: Micruroides euryxanthus (Sonoran Coralsnake) Herpetological Review 47 (4): 630-631
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Cruz-Sáenz, D., F. J. Muñoz-Nolasco, V. Mata-Silva, J. D. Johnson, E. García-Padilla, and L. D. Wilson. 2017. The herpetofauna of Jalisco, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(1): 23–118 - get paper here
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Enderson, Erik F.; Thomas R. Van Devender, Robert L. Bezy 2014. Amphibians and reptiles of Yécora, Sonora and the Madrean Tropical Zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. Check List 10 (4): 913-926 - get paper here
  • FLESCH, AARON D.; DON E. SWANN, DALE S. TURNER, AND BRIAN F. POWELL 2010. HERPETOFAUNA OF THE RINCON MOUNTAINS, ARIZONA. Southwestern Naturalist 55(2):240–253 - get paper here
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Jones, Lawrence L. C., Abigail D. King, Paul A. Simpson, Joshua Taiz and Paul Wolterbeek. 2011. Micruroides euryxanthus (Sonoran coralsnake) predation. Herpetological Review 42 (3): 440-441 - get paper here
  • Jones, Thomas R. and Kevin Krahn. 2014. Micruroides euryxanthus (Sonoran coralsnake) diet. Herpetological Review 45 (2): 339-340
  • Kennicott, R. 1860. Descriptions of new species of North American serpents in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 328-338 - get paper here
  • Meik, Jesse M.; Smith, Eric N.; Hernandez, Andres Alberto Mendoza. 2007. Rediscovery of the rare coralsnake Micruroides euryxanthus neglectus (Serpentes: Elapidae). Herpetological Review 38 (3): 293-294 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A., Good, David A., Wake, David B. 2003. Brief History of Herpetology in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, with a List of Type Specimens of Recent Amphibians and Reptiles. UC Publications in Zoology, 119 pp.
  • Roze, Janis A. 1974. Micruroides, M. euryxanthus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (163): 1-4 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1928. Notes on American coral snakes. Bulletin of the Antivenin Institute of America 2(3): 63–64
  • Shupe, Scott 2013. Venomous snakes of the world. Department of the Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, 320 pp.
  • Slowinski J B. 1995. A phylogenetic analysis of the New World coral snakes (Elapidae: Leptomicrurus, Micruroides, and Micrurus) based on allozymic and morphological characters. Journal of Herpetology 29 (3): 325-338 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1985. Snakes of Western Chihuahua. Great Basin Naturalist 45 (4): 615-676 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Webb, R.G. 1984. Herpetogeography in the Mazatlán-Durango Region of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Vetrebrate Ecology and Systematics - A ribute to Henry S. Fitch; Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, pp. 217-241
  • Werning, Heiko 2012. Die Reptilien und Amphibien des Südwestens. Draco 13 (50): 18-60 - get paper here
  • Wilson, F. 1991. Tail autotomy fails to stop predation by a captive Arizona Coral Snake (Micruroides e. euryxanthus). Sonoran Herpetologist 4 (5):145, 148-149. - get paper here
  • Zweifel,R.G. and Norris,K.S. 1955. Contributions to the herpetology of Sonora, Mexico:Descriptions of new subspecies of snakes (Micruroides euryxanthus and Lampropeltis getulus) and miscellaneous collecting notes. American Midland Naturalist 54: 230-249 - get paper here
 
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