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Micrurus averyi SCHMIDT, 1939

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Black-headed Coral Snake
Portuguese: Cobra-Coral, Cobra-Coral-Vermelha, Coral-Verdadeira 
SynonymMicrurus averyi SCHMIDT 1939
Micrurus averyi — WELCH 1994: 79
Micrurus averyi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 442
Micrurus averyi — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionS Guyana, Brazil (Amazonas, Pará [HR 34: 389])

Type locality: British Guiana, Courantyne District, near the Brazilian border, at Lat. 1° 40' N. and Long. 58° W.  
TypesHolotype: FMNH 30956 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A species of Micrurus with the rings not in triads, head almost entirely black, no nuchal ring, and with relatively few black rings. Allied, presumably, to M. corallinus, but distinguished by the absence of the nuchal black ring, the smaller number of narrower black rings, and the reduction of the yellow rings to spots [from SCHMIDT 1939]. 
EtymologyNamed after Sewell L. Avery (1873-1960), American financier, head of the Commercial Club of Chicago, and Chairman of Montgomery Ward and Co. (a group of 575 retail outlets in the USA) (1931-1955). 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Burger, W.L. 1955. A new subspecies of the coral snake Micrurus lemniscatus from Vénézuela, British Guiana and Trinidad, and a key for the identification of associated species of coral snakes. Bol. Mus. Cienc. Nat. Caracas 1: 35-40
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Claessen, H. 2005. De slangen van de Guyana’s, deel IX. Lacerta 63 (6): 228-241 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • FEITOSA, DARLAN TAVARES; NELSON JORGE DA SILVA JR., MATHEUS GODOY PIRES, HUSSAM ZAHER & ANA LÚCIA DA COSTA PRUDENTE 2015. A new species of monadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus (Serpentes, Elapidae) from western Amazon. Zootaxa 3974 (4): 538–554
  • Fraga, R., Lima, A. P., Prudente, A. L. C., & Magnusson, W. E. 2013. Guia de cobras da região de Manaus – Amazônia Central. Manaus: INPA - get paper here
  • França, R. C., França, F. G., Rödder, D., & Solé, M. 2022. Historical collection of snakes from Brazil by herpetologist and biogeographer Paul Müller (1940–2010), deposited at the Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, Germany. Bonn zoological Bulletin 71 (1): 41–49 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Hudson, Assis; Alexandre de; Felipe Franco Curcio, Bernadete Maria de Sousa, Otavio Augusto Vuolo Marques 2021. The South American false coral snake Erythrolamprus aesculapii (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) as a possible mimic of Micrurus averyi (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Central Amazonia. Phyllomedusa 20(1): 93-98 - get paper here
  • KOK, P. J. R., ROZE, J. A., LENGLET, G. L., SAMBHU, H. & ARJOON, D. 2003. Micrurus isozonus (Cope, 1860) (Serpentes, Elapidae): an addition to the herpetofauna of Guyana, with comments on other species of coral snakes from Guyana. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Biologie, 73 : 75-82 - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Morato, Sérgio Augusto Abrahão; Guilherme Nunes Ferreira; Michela Rossane Cavilha Scupino (eds.) 2018. Herpetofauna da Amazônia Central: Estudos na FLONA de Saracá-Taquera. Curitiba, Pr: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas, Pa: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A., 2018.<br />210p. - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Schmidt,K.P. 1939. A new coral snake from Brirish Guyana. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. Zool. Ser. 24; 45-47 - get paper here
  • Silva Jr, Nelson Jorge da; Marcus Augusto Buononato & Darlan Tavares Feitosa 2016. AS COBRAS-CORAIS DO NOVO MUNDO. In: Silva (ed) Cobras corais do Brasil. Goiânia, pp. 41-69
  • Vanzolini, P. E. 1985. Micrurus averyi Schmidt, 1939, in central amazonia (Serpentes, Elapidae). Papéis Avulsos Zoologia (São Paulo) 36 (8): 77-85
  • Velloso Calleffo, Myriam E. 1997. Geographic Distribution. Micrurus averyi. Herpetological Review 28 (4): 210 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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