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Micrurus frontalis DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesSouthern Coral Snake 
SynonymMicrurus frontalis frontalis (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854)
Elaps frontalis DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1223
Micrurus frontalis multicinctus AMARAL 1944
Micrurus frontalis frontalis — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus frontalis multicinctus — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus frontalis frontalis — ROZE 1994
Micrurus frontalis multicinctus — ROZE 1994
Micrurus frontalis multicinctus — ROZE 1996: 175
Micrurus frontalis frontalis — ROZE 1996: 172
Micrurus frontalis — DA SILVA & SITES 1999: 149
Micrurus frontalis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 446 
DistributionBrazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay,
NE Argentina (Corrientes, Entre Rios, Misiones, Santiago del Estero)

multicinctus: Brazil (S Sao Paulo to N Rio Grande do Sul); Type locality: Texeira Soares, Parana Brazil.

Type locality: Corrientes and Misiones Territory, Argentina.  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 0854 and MNHN-RA 0578 (2 of 3 left)
Holotype: IB 8877, a female [multicinctus] 
CommentSubspecies: Several forms formerly considered to be subspecies of M. frontalis are now regarded as separate species: Micrurus altirostris, M. baliocoryphus, M. pyrrhocryptus and M. diana (DA SILVA & SITES 1999). Synonymy partly following that of CEI 1993. Subspecies and distribution partly after WELCH 1994.


Not in Uruguay fide CARREIRA et al. (2005). However, Micrurus altirostris, previously considered as a subspecies of M. frontalis occurs in Uruguay. 
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  • Amaral, A. do. 1944. Notas sôbre a ofiologia neotrópica e brasilica. XI. Subespécies de Micrurus lemniscatus (L.) e suas afindades com M. frontalis (Dm. & Bibr.). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 5, 83–94 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
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  • Da SILVA, N. J. JR. & J. W. JR. SITES 1999. Revision of the Micrurus frontalis complex (Serpentes: Elapidae). Herpetological Monographs 13: 142-194 - get paper here
  • DI-BERNARDO, MARCOS; MARCIO BORGES-MARTINS & NELSON JORGE DA SILVA, JR. 2007. A new species of coralsnake (Micrurus: Elapidae) from southern Brazil. Zootaxa 1447: 1–26 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38 - get paper here
  • Freiberg, M.A. 1982. Snakes of South America. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 189 pp.
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  • Marques, Otavio A. V.; Rafaela Z. Coeti, Patrícia A. Braga, Ivan Sazima 2017. A rotten choice: feeding attempt by a coral snake (Micrurus frontalis) on a dead pitviper (Bothrops jararaca) that had swallowed a bulky rodent. Herpetology Notes 10: 137-139 - get paper here
  • Roze, J.A. 1994. Notes on the taxonomy of venomous coral snakes (Elapidae) of South America. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 30: 177-185. - get paper here
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