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Micrurus frontalis DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesSouthern Coral Snake 
SynonymMicrurus frontalis frontalis (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854)
Elaps frontalis DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1223
Micrurus frontalis multicinctus AMARAL 1944
Micrurus frontalis frontalis — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus frontalis multicinctus — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus frontalis frontalis — ROZE 1994
Micrurus frontalis multicinctus — ROZE 1994
Micrurus frontalis multicinctus — ROZE 1996: 175
Micrurus frontalis frontalis — ROZE 1996: 172
Micrurus frontalis — DA SILVA & SITES 1999: 149
Micrurus frontalis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 446 
DistributionBrazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay,
NE Argentina (Corrientes, Entre Rios, Misiones)

multicinctus: Brazil (S Sao Paulo to N Rio Grande do Sul); Type locality: Texeira Soares, Parana Brazil.

Type locality: Corrientes and Misiones Territory, Argentina. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 0854 and MNHN-RA 0578 (2 of 3 left)
Holotype: IB 8877, a female [multicinctus] 
CommentSubspecies: Several forms formerly considered to be subspecies of M. frontalis are now regarded as separate species: Micrurus altirostris, M. baliocoryphus, M. pyrrhocryptus and M. diana (DA SILVA & SITES 1999). Synonymy partly following that of CEI 1993. Subspecies and distribution partly after WELCH 1994.

Venomous!

Not in Uruguay fide CARREIRA et al. (2005). However, Micrurus altirostris, previously considered as a subspecies of M. frontalis occurs in Uruguay. 
References
  • Amaral, A. do. 1944. Notas sôbre a ofiologia neotrópica e brasilica. XI. Subespécies de Micrurus lemniscatus (L.) e suas afindades com M. frontalis (Dm. & Bibr.). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 5, 83–94 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • Cope, E.D. 1860. Catalogue of the venomous serpents in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes on the families, genera and species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1859: 332-347 - get paper here
  • Da SILVA, N. J. JR. & J. W. JR. SITES 1999. Revision of the Micrurus frontalis complex (Serpentes: Elapidae). Herpetological Monographs 13: 142-194 - get paper here
  • DI-BERNARDO, MARCOS; MARCIO BORGES-MARTINS & NELSON JORGE DA SILVA, JR. 2007. A new species of coralsnake (Micrurus: Elapidae) from southern Brazil. Zootaxa 1447: 1–26 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and <br />Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38 - get paper here
  • Freiberg, M.A. 1982. Snakes of South America. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 189 pp.
  • Marques, Otavio A. V.; Lígia Pizzatto, and Selma M. Almeida Santos 2013. Reproductive Strategies of New World Coral Snakes, Genus Micrurus. Herpetologica 69 (1): 58-66. - get paper here
  • Marques, Otavio A. V.; Rafaela Z. Coeti, Patrícia A. Braga, Ivan Sazima 2017. A rotten choice: feeding attempt by a coral snake (Micrurus frontalis) on a dead pitviper (Bothrops jararaca) that had swallowed a bulky rodent. Herpetology Notes 10: 137-139 - get paper here
  • Roze, J.A. 1994. Notes on the taxonomy of venomous coral snakes (Elapidae) of South America. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 30: 177-185.
  • Schmidt, Karl P. 1936. Preliminary account of coral snakes of South America. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Natural History 20 (19): 189-203 - get paper here
  • Scott, Norman J.;Lovett, Jonny Wayne 1975. A collection of reptiles and amphibians from the Chaco of Paraguay. The University of Connecticut Occasional Papers, Biological Series 2 (16): 257-266
  • Scrocchi G J. 1990. El genero Micrurus (Serpentes: Elapidae) en la Republica Argentina. Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 8 (2): 343-368.
  • Shreve, Benjamin 1953. Notes on the races of Micrurus frontalis (Duméril, Duméril and Bibron). Breviora (16): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Vitt, L. J.; Caldwell, J. P.; Colli, G. R.; Garda, A. A.; Mesquita, D. O.; França, F. G. R. e Balbino, S. F. 2002. Um guia fotográfico dos répteis e anfíbios da região do Jalapão no Cerrado brasileiro. Norman, Oklahoma: Special Publications in Herpetology. San Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Weinstein, Scott A. 2017. Non-Front-Fanged Colubroid Snakes. In: J. Brent et al. (eds.), Critical Care Toxicology. Springer Verlag, pp. 2453-2492 - get paper here
  • Welch, K. R. G. 1994. Snakes of the World. A Checklist. I. Venomous snakes. KCM Books, Somerset, England.
 
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