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Micrurus lemniscatus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesMicrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus (LINNAEUS 1758)
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi ROZE 1967
Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus (WERNER 1927)
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri SCHMIDT & SCHMIDT 1925 
Common NamesSouth American Coral Snake 
SynonymColuber lemniscatus LINNAEUS 1758: 224
Elaps lemniscatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1217
Elaps lemniscatus — BOULENGER 1886: 438
Elaps lemniscatus — GARMAN 1887: 285
Micrurus lemniscatus — BEEBE 1919: 216
Micrurus lemniscatus — BEEBE 1946: 46
Micrurus lemniscatus — KORNACKER 1999: 155
Micrurus lemniscatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 448

Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus (LINNAEUS 1758)
Coluber lemniscatus LINNAEUS 1758: 224
Elaps heterochilus BOULENGER 1896
Elaps gravenhorstii BOULENGER 1896
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — BURGER 1955: 40
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 212
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — WELCH 1994: 85
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — STARACE 1998: 358
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — BARRIO-AMOROS et al. 2003

Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi ROZE 1967
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi ROZE 1967: 33
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 212
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi — WELCH 1994: 85
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi — BARRIO-AMOROS et al. 2003
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi — FROTA et al. 2005
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi — PIRES et al. 2014
Micrurus carvalhoi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 446

Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus (WERNER 1927)
Elaps frontifasciatus WERNER 1927: 250
Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus — ROZE 1967: 34
Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Micrurus frontifasciatus — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus frontifasciatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 446

Micrurus lemniscatus helleri SCHMIDT & SCHMIDT 1925
Micrurus helleri SCHMIDT & SCHMIDT 1925: 129
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — ROZE 1967: 35
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 212
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — DUELLMAN 1978: 261
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — FUGLER & WALLS 1978
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — WELCH 1994: 85
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — BARRIO-AMOROS et al. 2003
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011 
DistributionN Bolivia, Brazil (Amazonas, Goias, Rio Grande do Sul [HR 32: 60], Acre, Rio de Janeiro), Colombia, E Ecuador,
French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, E Peru, Argentina (HR 27: 34), Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014), Venezuela

lemniscatus: Brazil (Amapa, Para), N Guianas

carvalhoi: NE/C Brazil (Bahia, Alagoas, DF, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco, São Paulo, Tocantins, Espírito Santo), Argentina (Corrientes), Paraguay (Amambay, Caaguazú); Type locality: "Catanduva, Sao Paulo, Brazil".

frontifasciatus: Bolivia, Brazil (Pará: [HR 31: 255]); Type locality: “Bolivia”

helleri: Amazon region of N Brazil, S Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia; Type locality: "Pozuzo, Huanuco, Peru".

Type locality: “Asia” (fide LINNAEUS 1758; in error); Schmidt and Walker (1943) restricted the type locality to Belem. Para, Brazil; however, Roze (1967) thought that the specimen most likely came from the northern Guianas.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: NRM (also given as RMS)
Lectotype: NRS L-93, designated by Roze, 1989.
Holotype: NMW = NHMW 18298 [frontifasciatus]
Holotype: FMNH 5577, male [helleri]
Holotype: USNM 76341, male, ZMB 2727 seems to be the iconotype from Seba 1734 [carvalhoi] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. (1) Dorsal pattern of white, red, and black triads; (2) hemipenis and tail relatively short; (3) two supralabials entering orbit; (4) mental usually separated from chinshields by medial contact of first pair of infralabials; (5) anal scale usually divided; (6) first triad complete; (7) 2-6 red vertebrals separating first triad from parietals; (8) dorsal surface of head black with white band crossing snout; margins of scales within white band not edged in black; parietals partly red; (9) extent of black pigment in red and white rings variable; (10) white rings longest ventrally, never constricted or broken ventrally by black rings; (11) mental and some anterior infralabials entirely black (i.e., band across snout broken by entirely black infralabials) or red; (12) 9-15 triads on the body and 1-1.67 triads on the tail in Bolivian specimens (7-17 and 0.67-2 across the species range, Campbell and Lamar, 1989); (13) white rings always smaller than exterior black rings in Bolivian specimens and elsewhere (Campbell and Lamar, 1989; Harvey et al. 2003). 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 who list Micrurus lemniscatus multicinctus AMARAL 1944 as synonym of Micrurus frontalis altirostris. Campbell & Lamar 2004 list M. (l.) frontifasciatus as a synonym of Micrurus lemniscatus (without reference or justification).

Venomous!

Max total length: 115 cm.

Distribution: Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus does not occur in Bolivia (T. Doan, pers. comm., 16 Apr 2012). 
Etymology 
References
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