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Micrurus mipartitus (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854)

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesMicrurus mipartitus mipartitus (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854)
Micrurus mipartitus anomalus (BOULENGER 1896)
Micrurus mipartitus decussatus (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854)
Micrurus mipartitus popayanensis AYERBE, TIDWELL & TIDWELL 1990
Micrurus mipartitus rozei GOLAY, CHISZAR, SMITH & BREUKELEN 1999 
Common NamesE: Redtail Coral Snake
S: Rabo de ají 
SynonymElaps mipartitus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1220
Micrurus mipartitus — AMARAL 1926: 66
Elaps decipiens WERNER 1927: 250
Micrurus mipartitus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 212
Micrurus mipartitus — KORNACKER 1999: 157
Micrurus mipartitus — BERNARDE et al. 2012
Micrurus mipartitus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 449

Micrurus mipartitus mipartitus (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854)
Elaps mipartitus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854
Elaps aequicinctus WERNER 1903: 249 (uncertain synonym)
Micrurus mipartitus mipartitus — RENDAHL & VESTERGREN 1955: 9
Micrurus mipartitus mipartitus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 213
Micrurus mipartitus mipartitus — WELCH 1994: 87

Micrurus mipartitus anomalus (BOULENGER 1896)
Elaps anomalus BOULENGER 1896: 417
Micrurus anomalus — AMARAL 1929: 228
Micrurus mipartitus anomalus — ROZE 1967: 37
Micrurus mipartitus anomalus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 213
Micrurus mipartitus anomalus — WELCH 1994: 87
Micrurus mipartitus anomalus — BARRIO-AMOROS et al. 2003

Micrurus mipartitus decussatus (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854)
Elaps decussatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1221
Elaps fraseri BOULENGER 1896: 432
Elaps mentalis BOULENGER 1896: 432
Elaps calamus BOULENGER 1902: 57
Elaps microps BOULENGER 1913: 1036
Micrurus mipartitus multiscutatus RENDAHL & VESTERGREN 1940: 9
Micrurus mipartitus decussatus — ROZE 1967: 37
Micrurus mipartitus decussatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 213
Micrurus mipartitus decussatus — WELCH 1994: 87
Micrurus mipartitus decussatus — ROJAS-MORALES 2012

Micrurus mipartitus popayanensis AYERBE, TIDWELL & TIDWELL 1990

Micrurus mipartitus rozei GOLAY et al. 1999
Elaps semipartitus JAN 1858: 516
Micrurus mipartitus semipartitus — SCHMIDT 1955
Micrurus mipartitus semipartitus — ROZE 1955: 466
Micrurus mipartitus semipartitus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 214
Micrurus mipartitus semipartitus — WELCH 1994: 87
Micrurus mipartitus rozei GOLAY et al. 1999 (nom. emend.) 
Distributionmipartitus: Costa Rica, E Panama, Pacific coast of Colombia (Valle del Cauca), Brazil (Rondônia)

anomalus: Colombia, W Venezuela (Zulia); Type locality: Colombia.

decussatus: Colombia, Ecuador

popayanensis: Colombia (Cauca); Type locality: “en el corregimiento de Sucre, Municipio de Bolívar, Dpto. del Cauca (2° 2’ N; y 76° 54’ W) el 11 de Enero de 1980 a 1400 m de altura sobre el nivel del mar por el Maestro de Escuela don Henry Muñoz y su Sra., Auxiliar de Enfermería Araceli de Muñoz en la finca “Las Cascadas” cerca de un trapiche de
caña de azúcar.”

rozei: N Venezuela (Cordillera de la Costa); Type locality: Caracas, Venezuela. Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesType: lost or unknown, used to be in MNHN, but no longer (PETERS 1960).
Holotype: CSA 85 [popayanensis]
Holotype: RMNH 1388 [rozei] 
CommentPreviously M. mipartitus and M. multifasciatus have been regarded as the same species. Therefore, older records of mipartitus from Nicaragua and Costa Rica represent most likely multifasciatus. Micrurus mipartitus hertwigi (WERNER 1897) is currently listed as Micrurus multifasciatus hertwigi.

Venomous! 
References
  • Amaral, A. D. 1926. Studies on Neotropical ophidia. II. On Micrurus mipartitus and allied forms. Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club 9: 61-66
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVIII. Lista remissiva dos ophidios da região neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 126-271 [1929] - get paper here
  • Ayerbe, S.; Tidwell, M.A. & Tidwell, M. 1990. OBSERVACIONES SOBRE LA BIOLOGÍA Y COMPORTAMIENTO DE LA SERPIENTE CORAL “RABO DE AJÍ” (Micrurus mipartitus). DESCRIPCIÓN DE UNA SUBESPECIE NUEVA. Novedades Colombianas, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad del Cauca, Popayán, 2:30-41 - get paper here
  • Barrio Amorós, César Luis and Daniel Calcaño 2003. First record of Micrurus lemniscatus (Linnaeus, 1758) from western Venezuela with comments on coral snakes from the eastern Andean piedmont (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae). Herpetozoa 16 (1/2):73-78 - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Snakes of Rondônia State, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1913. On a collection of batrachians and reptiles made by Dr. H.G. Spurrell,F.Z.S. in the Choco, Colombia. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1913: 1019-1038 - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1902. Descriptions of new batrachians and reptiles from northwestern Ecuador. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 9 (49): 51-57 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Carrera, C. et al. 2009. Guía de Campo de los Pequeños Vertebrados del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito (DMQ). Publicación Miscelánea N° 5. Serie de Publicaciones del Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (MECN) – Fondo Ambiental del MDMQ. 1-89 pp. Imprenta Nuevo Arte. Quito-Ecuador.
  • Castro-Herrera, F. & Vargas-Salinas, F. 2008. Anfibios y reptiles en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 9 (2): 251 - 277 - get paper here
  • CASTRO-HERRERA, FERNANDO; ANYELET VALENCIA-AGUILAR, DIEGO VILLAQUIRAN-Martínez 2012. Diversidad de Anfibios y Reptiles del Parque Nacional Natural Isla Gorgona Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Valle del Cauca, 112 pp.
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Golay, P.; Chiszar, D. & Smith, H.M. 1999. The proper name for the Venezuelan red-tailed coral snake. Acta Biologica Venezuelica 19 (4):73-75
  • Jan, G. 1858. Plan d'une iconographie descriptive des ophidiens et description sommaire de nouvelles espèces des serpents. Rev. Mag. Zool. Paris (2) 10: 438-449, 514-527 - get paper here
  • Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Leenders, Twan; Beckers, Gabriel & Strijbosch, Henk 1996. Micrurus mipartitus (NCN). Polymorphism. Herpetological Review 27 (1): 25 - get paper here
  • Markezich, A.L. 2002. New distribution records of reptiles from Western Venezuela. Herpetological Review 33 (1): 69-74 - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Pedroza-Banda, Raúl; Jhon Jairo Ospina-Sarria, Teddy Angarita-Sierra, Marvin Anganoy-Criollo, John D. Lynch 2014. Estado de la fauna de anfibios y reptiles del Casanare Ciencias naturales Estado del conocimiento de la fauna de anfibios y reptiles del departamento de Casanare, Colombia. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. 38 (146): 17-34 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Rendahl, H. & VESTERGREN,G. 1940. Notes on Colombian snakes. Arkiv för Zoologi 33A [1941?] (5): 1-16
  • Rendahl,H. & VESTERGREN,G. 1955. Arkiv för Zoologi 33A (1): 9
  • RENJIFO, J. M. & M. LUNDBERG 2003. Una especie nuevo de serpiente coral (Elapidae, Micrurus), de la region de Urra, municipio de Tierra Alta, Cordoba, noroccidente de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana Ciencias Exactas Fisicas y Naturales, 27 (102): 141-144.
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rojas-Morales, Julián Andrés, Héctor Fabio Arias-Monsalve y Gustavo A. González-Durán 2014. Anibios y reptiles de la región centro-sur del departamento de Caldas, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 15 (1): 73-93 - get paper here
  • Rojas-Morales, Julián Andrés 2012. Snakes of an urban-rural landscape in the central Andes of Colombia: species composition, distribution, and natural history. Phyllomedusa 11 (2): 135-
  • Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J.M.; Rivero, Edwin E. Infante; Barrio-Amorós, César L.; Blanco, Tito R. Barros. 2007. New distributional records of amphibians and reptiles from Estado Zulia in the Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Herpetological Review 38 (2): 235-237 - get paper here
  • Roze, J. A. 1952. Colección de reptiles del Profesor Scorza, de Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica 1 (5): 93-114
  • Roze, Jánis A 1967. A checklist of the New World venomous Coral Snakes (Elapidae), with descriptions of new forms. American Museum Novitates (2287): 1-60 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Schmidt, K. E, & INGER, R. F. 1951. Amphibians and reptiles of the Hopkins-Branner expedition to Brazil. Fieldiana: Zoology 31: 439-465 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1933. Preliminary account of the coral snakes of Central America and Mexico. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Ser. 20: 29-40. - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. 1936. Preliminary account of coral snakes of South America. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Natural History 20 (19): 189-203 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. 1955. Coral snakes of the genus Micrurus in Colombia. Fieldiana Zoology 34 (34): 337-359 - get paper here
  • Slowinski, Joseph B.; Boundy, Jeff & Lawson,R. 2001. The phylogenetic relationships of Asian coral snakes (Elapidae: Calliophis and Maticora) based on morphological and molecular characters. Herpetologica 57 (2): 233-245 - get paper here
  • Valencia-Zuleta A, Jaramillo-Martínez AF, Echeverry-Bocanegra A, Viáfara-Vega R, Hernández-Córdoba O, Cardona-Botero VE, Gutiérrez-Zúñiga J, Castro-Herrera F. 2014. Conservation status of the herpetofauna, protected areas, and current problems in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (2): 1–18 (e87) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1903. Neue Reptilien und Batrachier aus dem naturhistorischen Museum in Brüssel. Zool. Anz. 26: 246-253 - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1927. Neue oder wenig bekannte Schlangen aus dem Wiener naturhistorischen Staatsmuseum (III. Teil). Sitzungsb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl. 143 [135?]: 243-257 [1926] - get paper here
 
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