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Micrurus surinamensis (CUVIER, 1817)

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesAquatic Coral Snake 
SynonymElaps surinamensis CUVIER 1817: 84
Elaps surinamensis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1224
Micrurus surinamensis — BEEBE 1919: 216
Micrurus surinamensis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 219
Micrurus surinamensis surinamensis — DUELLMAN 1978: 262
Micrurus surinamensis surinamensis — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Micrurus surinamensis surinamensis — WELCH 1994: 89
Micrurus surinamensis — STARACE 1998: 367
Micrurus surinamensis — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011
Micrurus surinamensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 454 
DistributionFrench Guiana, Guyana, the Amazon region of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil (Mato Grosso, Pará), Bolivia

Type locality: Suriname. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesLectotype: MNHN 3926, male, Museum National d’ Historie Naturelle, Paris, from Suriname, collected by Levaillant; originally syntype, designated as lectotype by Schmidt (1952). 
CommentVenomous!

Subspecies: Micrurus surinamensis nattereri SCHMIDT 192 has been elevated to full species status.

Diagnosis: Distinguished from other species of the genus by frontal scale narrower than supraoculars; only one supralabial (4th) contacting the eye; head flattened with nostrils and eyes directed upwards; process pseudocoronoid extremely developed; distinguished from M. nattereri by having 16–174 (instead of 180–19) ventrals in males and 169–187 (instead of 193–21) ventrals in females; supratemporals extending well beyond exoccipitals rather than reaching only the posterior portion of exoccipitals in M. nattereri; posterior portion of parietal bone with a conspicuous sharp projection which is blunter in M. nattereri (from PASSOS & FERNANDES 200). 
Etymologynamed after its type locality and distribution. 
References
  • Ávila, R.W.; R.A. Kawashita-Ribeiro. 2011. Herpetofauna of São João da Barra Hydroelectric Plant, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Check List 7 (6): 750-755 - get paper here
  • Beebe, William 1919. Higher vertebrates of British Guiana, with special reference to the fauna of Bartica District. Zoologica 2 (7): 205-238
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, Paulo Sérgio; Jáson de Oliveira GOMES 2012. Serpentes peçonhentas e ofidismo em Cruzeiro do Sul, Alto Juruá, Estado do Acre, Brasil. Acta Amazonica 42 (1): 65 - 72
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
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  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Cuvier, G. 1817. Le règne animal distribué d’après son organisation, pour servir de base a l’historire naturelle des animaux et d’introduction a l’anatomie comparée. Vol. 2. Les reptiles, les poissons, les mollusques et les annélides. Déterville, Paris - get paper here
  • Dávila, Pedro Henrique Bertáo, Hideki Sadadi Takahashi and Miguel Heyd Oshiro Barbosa. 2014. Micrurus surinamensis (aquatic coralsnake) behavior. Herpetological Review 45 (2): 340
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  • Duellman, W. E. 2005. Cusco Amazónico: The Lives of Amphibians and Reptiles in an Amazonian Rainforest. Comstock Pub Assoc.
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  • Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
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  • Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
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  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
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  • Passos, P.; Fernandes, D.S. 2005. Variation and taxonomic status of the aquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Cuvier, 1817) (Serpentes: Elapidae). Zootaxa 953:1-14. - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Part II Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • Pinto, Roberta Richard, Marcelo Gomes and Ronald Carvalho, Jr. 2011. Micrurus surinamensis (aquatic coralsnake) ophiophagy. Herpetological Review 42 (3): 441 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
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  • Schmidt, K. P. 1952. The Surinam coral snake, Micrurus surinamensis. Fieldiana: Zoology 34 (4): 25-34 - get paper here
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  • Schmidt, Karl P. 1955. Coral snakes of the genus Micrurus in Colombia. Fieldiana Zoology 34 (34): 337-359 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. & Walker, Warren F. 1943. Peruvian snakes from the University of Arequipa. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Zoology 24 (26): 279-296 - get paper here
  • Silva, F.M.; A.C. Menks; A.L.C. Prudente; J.C.L. Costa; A.E.M. Travassos; U. Galatti. 2011. Squamate Reptiles from municipality of Barcarena and surroundings, state of Pará, north of Brazil. Check List 7 (3): 220-226
  • Silva, M.C. da, R.H. de Oliveira, D.H. Morais, R.A. Kawashita-Ribeiro, E.S. de Brito & R.W. Ávila 2015. Amphibians and reptiles of a Cerrado area in Primavera do Leste Municipality, Mato Grosso State, Central Brazil. Salamandra 51 (2): 187-194 - get paper here
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Strussman,C. & de Carvalho,M.A. 1998. New herpetological records for the state of Mato Grosso, western Brazil. Herpetological Review 29 (3): 183-185 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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