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Micrurus tener BAIRD & GIRARD, 1853

IUCN Red List - Micrurus tener - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesMicrurus tener fitzingeri (JAN 1858)
Micrurus tener maculatus ROZE 1967
Micrurus tener microgalbineus BROWN & SMITH 1942
Micrurus tener tamaulipensis LAVIN-MURCIO & DIXON 2004
Micrurus tener tener (BAIRD & GIRARD 1853) 
Common Namestener: Texas Coral Snake 
SynonymMicrurus tener tener (BAIRD & GIRARD 1853)
Elaps tenere BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 22
Elaps tenere BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 22
Elaps tristis BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 23
Micrurus fulvius tenere — SMITH & SMITH 1976
Micrurus fulvius tener — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 225
Micrurus tener — COLLINS 1991
Micrurus fulvius tenere — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus tener — LINER 1994
Micrurus fulvius tenere — ROZE 1996: 177
Micrurus fulvius tenere — DIXON 2000
Micrurus tener — CROTHER 2000
Micrurus fulvius tener — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 473
Micrurus fulvius tener — TENNANT 2003: 483
Micrurus tener — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 195
Micrurus tener — CROTHER et al. 2012
Micrurus tener — WALLACH et al. 2014: 455

Micrurus tener microgalbineus BROWN & SMITH 1942
Micrurus fitzingeri microgalbineus BROWN & SMITH 1942
Micrurus fitzingeri microgalbineus — TAYLOR 1949: 212
Micrurus fulvius microgalbineus — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus tener microgalbineus — LINER 1994
Micrurus tener microgalbineus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 197

Micrurus tener fitzingeri (JAN 1858)
Elaps fitzingeri JAN 1858: 316
Micrurus fulvius fitzingeri
Elaps fulvius BOULENGER 1896
Micrurus fitzingeri fitzingeri
Micrurus fitzingeri — SCHMIDT 1928
Micrurus fitzingeri — SCHMIDT 1932
Micrurus tener fitzingeri — LINER 1994
Micrurus fitzingeri — CASTRO-FRANCO & BUSTOS-ZAGAL 1994
Micrurus fulvius fitzingeri — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus tener fitzingeri — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 197

Micrurus tener maculatus ROZE 1967
Micrurus fulvius maculatus ROZE 1967
Micrurus fulvius maculatus — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus tener maculatus — LINER 1994
Micrurus tener maculatus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 197

Micrurus tener tamaulipensis LAVIN-MURCIO & DIXON 2004
Micrurus tamaulipensis LAVIN-MURCIO & DIXON 2004
Micrurus tamaulipensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 455
Micrurus tener tamaulipensis — HEIMES 2016: 341
Micrurus tamaulipensis — JOHNSON et al. 2017 
Distributionfitzingeri: Mexico (Guanajuato and Queretaro to Morelos, Hidalgo)

maculatus: Mexico (S Tamaulipas, N Veracruz); Type locality: Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

microgalbineus: Mexico (SW Tamaulipas, CE/E San Luis Potosí to C Guanajuato)

tamaulipensis: Mexico (Tamaulipas: Sierra de Tamaulipas);Type locality: Sierra de Tamaulipas, Rancho La Sauceda, ca. 50 km N Gonazlez, 750-1000 m elevation (23° 06’ 47’’ N, 98° 20’ 19’’ W), Tamaulipas, Mexico.

tener: USA (SW Arkansas and Louisiana to WC Texas), Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, Puebla)  
TypesHolotype: USNM
Holotype: ZMH R03028 (formerly no. 5685), male, ded. Dr. E. KALLERT Feb. 10, 1930 [maculatus]
Holotype: CAR-ITCV (also as ITCV or ITT) 751, paratypes: CCVUACJ (Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico) [tamaulipensis]
Syntype: NMW 18297 [fitzingeri]
Holotype: BCB 5381 (Strecker Museum Baylor University Waco) [microgalbineus]
Holotype: USNM 1124 [Elaps tristis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (tamaulipensis): Similar to M. tener, but differing in lacking a yellow head ring across the interparietal suture; the presence of a black head cap that extends beyond the tip of the parietal scales four to six scales; the chin and throat are mostly black, occasionally with small obscure red and orange marks. The tail is tricolored, black, yellow, and red. 

Synonymy: Streicher et al. 2016 suggested to synonymize all subspecies with the nominate form, M. tener.

Distribution: see map 20 in Campbell & Lamar 2004: 170 
EtymologyThe specific name is the Latin word tener, meaning "soft or delicate," in reference to the graceful features of this snake. 
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