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Montivipera raddei (BOETTGER, 1890)

IUCN Red List - Montivipera raddei - Near Threatened, NT

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesMontivipera raddei raddei (BOETTGER 1890)
Montivipera raddei kurdistanica (NILSON & ANDRÉN 1986) 
Common NamesE: Caucasus Viper
G: Armenische Bergotter, Raddes Otter 
SynonymVipera raddei BOETTGER 1890: 62
Vipera xanthina — STRAUCH 1869: 73 (not of GRAY 1849)
Coluber raddei — NIKOLSKY 1916: 250
Vipera lebetina raddei — SCHWARZ 1936: 240
Vipera albicornuta NILSON & ANDREN 1985
Daboia raddei — ENGELMANN et al. 1993
Vipera albicornuta — WELCH 1994: 119
Vipera (Montivipera) raddei — NILSON et al. 1999: 101
Vipera raddei — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 407
Vipera albicornuta — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999
Montivipera raddei — WERNING & WOLF 2007
Montivipera raddei — GARRIGUES et al. 2005
Vipera (Montivipera) raddei — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Montivipera albicornuta — RASTEGAR-POUYANI et al. 2008
Montivipera albicornuta — RAJABIZADEH et al. 2011
Montivipera raddei — WALLACH et al. 2014: 459
Montivipera albicornuta — SAFDARIAN et al. 2016

Montivipera raddei raddei (BOETTGER 1890)
Vipera raddei BOETTGER 1890
Vipera xanthina raddei — MERTENS 1952
Daboia raddei raddei — OBST 1983: 233
Vipera raddei raddei — WELCH 1994: 123
Montivipera raddei raddei — RAJABIZADEH et al. 2011

Montivipera raddei kurdistanica (NILSON & ANDRÉN 1986)
Vipera raddei kurdistanica NILSON & ANDRÉN 1986
Vipera raddei kurdistanica — WELCH 1994: 123
Vipera kurdistanica — NILSON et al. 1999
Montivipera raddei kurdistanica — RAJABIZADEH et al. 2011
Montivipera raddei kurdistanica — KUCHARZEWSKI 2011 
DistributionS Armenia, Nakhichevan (Azerbaijan), NE Turkey, NW Iran

raddei: E Turkey, NW Iran, adjacent Turkmenistan. Type locality: Kasikoparan in Armenien. Elevation up to 3000 m.

albicornuta: NW Iran; type locality: Abhar in the Zanjan valley, between Tabriz and Teheran, NW Iran.

kurdistanica: SE Turkey, adjacent Iraq and Iran. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproduction(ovo-) viparous. 
TypesSyntypes: Georgian Museum in Tbilisi [ZMT], now lost fide NILSON & ANDREN 1986.
Topotype: BMNH
Holotype: RSI 3098 [albicornuta] 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: Vipera albicornuta NILSON & ANDREN 1985 is a synonym of V. raddei (GOLAY et al. 1993 and JOGER, pers. comm.) although several authors have treated it as separate species. GOLAY et al. 1993 also treat V. latifi as subspecies of V. raddei. 
Etymologynamed after G.V. Radde who sent the types to Boettger (but which were collected by Christoph). 
References
  • Arakelyan, Marine S.; Felix D. Danielyan, Claudia Corti, Roberto Sindaco, and Alan E. Leviton 2011. The Herpetofauna of Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 154 pp. [ISBN: 978-0-916984-84-7.]
  • Boettger,O. 1890. Eine neue Viper aus Armenien. Zool. Anz. 13: 62-64 - get paper here
  • Engelmann,W.E. et al. 1993. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
  • Ettling, Jeff; Aram Aghasyan, Levon Aghasyan 2012. Envenomation by an Armenian Viper, Montivipera raddei (Boettger, 1890): A Case History. Russ. J. Herpetol. 19 (3): 203–206 - get paper here
  • Ettling, Jeffery A.; Levon A. Aghasyan, Aram L. Aghasyan, and Patricia G. Parker 2013. Spatial Ecology of Armenian Vipers, Montivipera raddei, in a Human-Modified Landscape . Copeia Mar 2013, Vol. 2013, No. 1: 64-71. - get paper here
  • Ettling, Jeffery A.; Levon A. Aghasyan, Aram L. Aghasyan, Patricia G. Parker 2016. Spatial Ecology of Armenian Vipers, Montivipera raddei, in Two Different Landscapes: Human-Modified vs. Recovered-Natural Russ. J. Herpetol. 23 (2): 93-102 - get paper here
  • Franzen,M. & Sigg, H. 1989. Bemerkungen zu einigen Schlangen Ostanatoliens. Salamandra 25 (3-4): 203-212 - get paper here
  • Garrigues, Thomas; Catherine Dauga; Elisabeth Ferquel; Valérie Choumet and Anna-Bella Failloux 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Vipera Laurenti, 1768 and the related genera Macrovipera (Reuss, 1927) and Daboia (Gray, 1842), with comments about neurotoxic Vipera aspis aspis populations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution <br />Volume 35 (1): 35-47 - get paper here
  • Joger,U. & M. Meder. 1997. Taxonomic Resolution of the Vipera xanthina Complex. In: Herpetology '97, Abstracts of the Third World Congress of Herpetology 2-10 August 1997 Prague, Czech Republic, Rocek,Z. & S. Hart (eds.), 244 p.:106.
  • KUCHARZEWSKI, C 2011. OLD WORLD VIPERS. A natural history of the Azemiopinae and Viperinae von Tony PHELPS – Anmerkungen, Ergänzungen, Korrekturen. Sauria 33 (3): 19-42 - get paper here
  • Leviton,A.E.; Anderson,S.C.; Adler, K.; Minton,S.A. 1992. Handbook to Middle East Amphibians and Reptiles. SSAR, Oxford, Ohio (Contr. to Herpetol. No. 8), 1-252
  • Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mebert, Konrad; Bayram Göçmen, Mert Karış, Naşit İğci, and Sylvain Ursenbacher 2016. The Valley of Four Viper Species and a Highland of Dwarfs: Fieldwork on Threatened Vipers in Northeastern Turkey IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 23 (1): 1-9 - get paper here
  • Mebert, Konrad; Bayram Göçmen, Naşİt İğcİ, Mehmet Anil Oğuz, Mert Kariş & Sylvain Ursenbacher 2015. New records and search for contact zones among parapatric vipers in the genus Vipera (barani, kaznakovi, darevskii, eriwanensis), Montivipera (wagneri, raddei), and Macrovipera (lebetina) in northeastern Anatolia Herpetological Bulletin (133) - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1952. Türkiye amfibi ve reptilleri hakkinda. Amphibien und Reptilien aus der Türkei. Rev. Istanbul Üniversitesi fen Fakültesi Mecmuasi, 17:41-75.
  • Mertens,R., Darevsky,I.S. & K. Klemmer. 1967. Vipera latifii, eine neue Giftschlange aus dem Iran. Senckenbergiana biologica 48 (3): 161-168.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. 1916. Faune de la Russie, Reptiles vol. 2, Ophidia. Petrograd, 396 pp. [English translation by A. Mercado, Israel and Smithsonian Institution, 247 pp.]
  • Nilson G; Andren C 1985. Systematics of the Vipera xanthina complex (Reptilia: Viperidae). 1. A new Iranian viper in the raddei species-group. Amphibia-Reptilia 6 (2): 207-214 - get paper here
  • Nilson G; Andren C 1986. The mountain vipers of the Middle East - the Vipera xanthina complex (Reptilia: Viperidae). Bonn. Zool. Monogr. 20: 1-90 - get paper here
  • Nilson, G., Andren, C., & Flärdh, B. 1988. Die Vipern der Türkei. Salamandra 24 (4): 215-247 - get paper here
  • Nilson,G.; TUNIYEV,B.; ANDRÉN,C.; ORLOV,N.; JOGER,U. & HERRMANN,H. W. 1999. Taxonomic position of the Vipera xanthina complex. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 99-102
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Rajabizadeh, Mahdi; Dominique Adriaens, Mohammad Kaboli, Jaleh Sarafraz, Mohsen Ahmadi 2015. Dorsal colour pattern variation in Eurasian mountain vipers (genus Montivipera): A trade-off between thermoregulation and crypsis. Zoologischer Anzeiger 257: 1–9; doi:10.1016/j.jcz.2015.03.006 - get paper here
  • Rajabizadeh, Mehdi; Göran Nilson, and Haji Gholi Kami 2011. A New Species of Mountain Viper (Ophidia: Viperidae) from the Central Zagros Mountains, Iran. Russ. J. Herpetol. 18 (3): 235 – 240 - get paper here
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • Safdarian, Parvaneh; Fatemeh Todehdehghanb, Vida Hojatia & Abdolhossein Shiravi 2016. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity of the Iranian Mountain Viper, Montivipera albicornuta (Nilson & Andrén, 1985) (Reptilia: Viperidae) Zoology in the Middle East 62 (1): 39-45 - get paper here
  • Sanz, L.; Ayvazyan, N.; Calvete, J.J. 2008. Snake venomics of the Armenian mountain vipers Macrovipera lebetina obtusa and Vipera raddei. Journal of Proteomics 71(2):198-209.
  • Schmidt, D. & Kunz, K. 2005. Ernährung von Schlangen. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 159 pp. - get paper here
  • Schwarz,E. 1936. Untersuchungen über Systematik und Verbreitung der europäischen und mediterranen Ottern. In: Die europäischen und mediterranen Ottern und ihre Gifte. Behringwerk-Mitteilungen 7: 159-362
  • Sigg, H. 1987. Ein erster Fund von Vipera raddei kurdistanica in der Südosttürkei. Herpetofauna 9 (48): 24-26 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Alberto Venchi, Giuseppe M. Carpaneto, Marco A. Bologna 2000. The Reptiles of Anatolia: a Checklist and Zoogeographical analysis. Biogeographia, 21-2000: 441-554.
  • Strauch, A. 1869. Synopsis der Viperiden nebst Bemerkungen über die geographische Verbreitung dieser Giftschlangen-Familie. Mem. Acad. imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg (7) 14 (6): 1-144 - get paper here
  • Stümpel, Nikolaus; Mehdi Rajabizadeh, Aziz Avcı, Wolfgang Wüster, Ulrich Joger 2016. Phylogeny and diversification of mountain vipers (Montivipera, Nilson et al. 2001) triggered by multiple Plio-Pleistocene refugia and high-mountain topography in the Near and Middle East Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.04.025 - get paper here
  • Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Annotated checklist of the reptiles of the Mediterranean countries, with keys to species identification. Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, XCVIII: 259-364
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werning, H. & Wolf, C. 2007. Gebirge und Hochland - Reptilien und Amphibien in einem extremen Lebensraum. Draco 7 (27): 4-27 - get paper here
 
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