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Naja annulata PETERS, 1876

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesNaja annulata annulata BUCHHOLZ & PETERS 1876
Naja annulata stormsi (DOLLO 1886) 
Common NamesE: Ringed Water Cobra
G: Wasserkobra 
SynonymNaja annulata annulata PETERS 1876
Naja annulata BUCHHOLZ & PETERS in PETERS 1876
Boulengerina annulata — SCHMIDT 1923: 123
Boulengerina annulata annulata— WELCH 1994: 35
Boulengerina annulata — CHIRIO & INEICH 2006
Naja annulata — WÜSTER et al. 2007
Boulengerina annulata — JACKSON 2008
Naja annulata annulata — PAUWELS & VANDE WEGHE 2008
Naja (Boulengerina) annulata — WALLACH et al. 2009
Boulengerina annulata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 119

Naja annulata stormsi (DOLLO 1886)
Boulengerina stormsi DOLLO 1886
Boulengerina stormsi — GÜNTHER 1888: 334
Boulengerina stormsi — LOVERIDGE 1929
Boulengerina stormsi — DE WITTE 1933
Boulengerina annulata stormsi — KRATZER 1965
Boulengerina annulata stormsi — WELCH 1994: 35
Boulengerina annulata stormsi — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 24
Boulengerina annulata stormsi — BROADLEY & COTTERILL 2004
Naja annulata stormsi — WÜSTER et al. 2007 (by implication) 
DistributionCameroon, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Congo (Brazzaville), Central African Republic, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia, Angola

stormsi: shores of Lake Tanganyika, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Katanga); Type locality: Lake Tanganyika, Zaire.

Type locality: “Dorfe Mbusa (Eliva Sonange am Ogowe)” [Gabon] [Naja annulata BUCHHOLZ & PETERS 1876] Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: ZMB 8772 (Naja annulata BUCHHOLZ & PETERS 1876) 

Type species: Boulengerina stormsi Dollo, 1886 (= Naja annulata) is the type species of the subgenus Boulengerina DOLLO 1886.

Diagnosis (Boulengerina): Intracranial (dorsal) anterior Vidian canal position, 2–4 solid maxillary teeth, penultimate (sixth) supralabial high, combination of one preocular and one anterior temporal (except N. christyi, which sometimes has two anterior temporals), rostral much broader than deep, internasals shorter than prefrontals, dorsal scales highly polished, fangs not modified for spitting.

Authors: Note that the author of Naja annulata is sometimes referred to as PETERS & BUCHHOLZ (1876) as PETERS used specimens collected by Buchholz.

Sources: The description by SCHMIDT (1923) is available online (see URL below).

Habitat: near and in rivers and lakes.

Diet: mostly fish

Synonymy: Paranaja multifasciata is nested within Naja in a tree based on DNA sequence data and thus WÜSTER et al. suggested to synonymize it with Naja. 
EtymologyNamed after the diminutive form (“annul-”) of Latin “anus” = ring.

The subgenus is dedicated to George Albert Boulenger, Belgian herpetologist. 
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1895. On the Type Specimen of Boulengerina stormsi, an Elapoid Snake from Central Africa. Proc. zool. Soc. London 1895: 865-866 - get paper here
  • BRANCH, W. R. & CONRADIE, W. 2013. Naja annulata annulata (Bucholtz & Peters, 1876). African Herp News (59): 50-53
  • Broadley, D.G.; Doria, C.T. & Wigge, J. 2003. Snakes of Zambia. An Atlas and Field Guide. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 280 pp. [review in Sauria 26 (3): 21]
  • Broadley, Donald G. and F. P. D. Cotterill. 2004. The reptiles of southeast Katanga, an overlooked 'hot spot'. [Congo]. African Journal of Herpetology 53 (1): 35-61. - get paper here
  • Carlino, P. & Pauwels, O.S.G. 2015. An Updated Reptile List of Ivindo National Park, the Herpetofaunal Hotspot of Gabon. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 50(3): 25-39 - get paper here
  • Chifundera, K. 1990. Snakes of Zaire and their bites. Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Chirio, Laurent and Ivan Ineich 2006. Biogeography of the reptiles of the Central African Republic. African Journal of Herpetology 55(1):23-59. - get paper here
  • Dainty, M. 2011. Die Gebänderte Wasserkobra, Boulengerina annulata. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (89): 24-28 - get paper here
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa/Giftschlangen Afrikas. Edition Chimaira, Terralog 15, 150 pp. - get paper here
  • Dollo,L. 1886. Notice sure les reptiles et batraciens. Bull. Mus. Roy. Hist. Nat. Belgique 4: 151-160 - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1888. Contribution to the knowledge of snakes of tropical Africa. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 1: 322-335 - get paper here
  • Hughes, B. 1983. African snake faunas. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 34: 311-356 - get paper here
  • Jackson, K. & Blackburn, D.C. 2007. The amphibians and reptiles of Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, Republic of Congo (Brazzaville). Salamandra 43 (3): 149-164 - get paper here
  • Jackson, Kate 2008. MEAN AND LOWLY THINGS - Snakes, Science, and Survival in the Congo. Harvard University Press, 336 pp.
  • Jackson, Kate; Ange-Ghislain Zassi-Boulou, Lis-Bethy Mavoungou, and Serge Pangou 2007. Amphibians and Reptiles of the LacTélé Community Reserve, Likouala Region, Republic of Congo (Brazzaville). Herp. Cons. Biol. 2 (2): 75-86 - get paper here
  • Kratzer, H. 1965. Über die Tanganyika-Wasserkobra (Boulengerina annulata stormsi) Salamandra 1 (3): 61-67 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, Arthur 1929. East African reptiles and amphibians in the United States National Museum. Bull. US Natl. Mus. (151): 1-135 - get paper here
  • Ogawa, Y.; Yanoshita, R.; Kuch, U.; Samejima, Y.; Mebs, D. 2004. Complete amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis of a long-chain neurotoxin from the venom of the African banded water cobra, Boulengerina annulata. Toxicon 43(7):855-858
  • Pauwels, O.S.G. & Vande weghe, J.P. 2008. Les reptiles du Gabon. Smithsonian Institution, Washington: 272 pp. - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; Kamdem Toham, A. & Chimsunchart, C. 2002. Recherches sur l’herpétofaune du Massif du Chaillu, Gabon. Bull. Inst. Roy. Sci. Nat. Belgique (Biologie) 72: 47-57 - get paper here
  • Perret 1961. Bull. Soc. neuchâtel. Sci. nat., 84: 133.
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1876. Eine zweite Mittheilung über die von Hrn. Professor Dr. R. Buchholz in Westafrica gesammelten Amphibien. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1876 (Februar): 117-123 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1923. Contributions to the herpetology of the Belgian Congo based on the collection of the American Museum Congo Expedition, 1909-1915. Part II. Snakes, with field notes by Herbert Lang and James P. Chapin. Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist. 49 (1): 1-146
  • Spawls, S., Branch,B. 1995. The Dangerous Snakes of Africa. Blandford, London, 192 pp.
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995. Les serpents du Congo: liste commentée et clé de détermination. Journal of African Zoology 109 (1): 31-50
  • Wallach, V.; Wüster, W. & Broadley, D.G. 2009. In praise of subgenera: taxonomic status of cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti (Serpentes: Elapidae). Zootaxa 2236: 26–36 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1899. Ueber Reptilien und Batrachier aus Togoland, Kamerun und Deutsch-Neu-Guinea grösstentheils aus dem k. Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 49: 132-157 - get paper here
  • Witte, G. F. de 1933. Reptiles récoltés au Conge Belge par le Dr. H. Schouteden et par M. G.-F. Witte. Ann. Mus. Conge belge Zool. Ser. 1 Tome III: 53-100.
  • Wüster, Wolfgang; Steven Crookes, Ivan Ineich, Youssouph Mané, Catharine E. Pook, Jean-Francois Trape, Donald G. Broadley 2007. The phylogeny of cobras inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences: Evolution of venom spitting and the phylogeography of the African spitting cobras (Serpentes: Elapidae: Naja nigricollis complex). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45: 437–453 - get paper here
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