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Naja annulata PETERS, 1876

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesNaja annulata annulata BUCHHOLZ & PETERS 1876
Naja annulata stormsi (DOLLO 1886) 
Common NamesE: Ringed Water Cobra
G: Wasserkobra 
SynonymNaja annulata annulata PETERS 1876
Naja annulata BUCHHOLZ & PETERS in PETERS 1876
Boulengerina annulata — SCHMIDT 1923: 123
Boulengerina annulata annulata— WELCH 1994: 35
Boulengerina annulata — CHIRIO & INEICH 2006
Naja annulata — WÜSTER et al. 2007
Boulengerina annulata — JACKSON 2008
Naja annulata annulata — PAUWELS & VANDE WEGHE 2008
Naja (Boulengerina) annulata — WALLACH et al. 2009
Boulengerina annulata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 119
Naja annulata — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 549

Naja annulata stormsi (DOLLO 1886)
Boulengerina stormsi DOLLO 1886
Boulengerina stormsi — GÜNTHER 1888: 334
Boulengerina stormsi — LOVERIDGE 1929
Boulengerina stormsi — DE WITTE 1933
Boulengerina annulata stormsi — KRATZER 1965
Boulengerina annulata stormsi — WELCH 1994: 35
Boulengerina annulata stormsi — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 24
Boulengerina annulata stormsi — BROADLEY & COTTERILL 2004
Naja annulata stormsi — WÜSTER et al. 2007 (by implication) 
DistributionCameroon, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Congo (Brazzaville), Central African Republic, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia, Angola

stormsi: shores of Lake Tanganyika, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Katanga); Type locality: Lake Tanganyika, Zaire.

Type locality: “Dorfe Mbusa (Eliva Sonange am Ogowe)” [Gabon] [Naja annulata BUCHHOLZ & PETERS 1876] Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: ZMB 8772 (Naja annulata BUCHHOLZ & PETERS 1876) 

Type species: Boulengerina stormsi Dollo, 1886 (= Naja annulata) is the type species of the subgenus Boulengerina DOLLO 1886.

Authors: Note that the author of Naja annulata is sometimes referred to as PETERS & BUCHHOLZ (1876) as PETERS used specimens collected by Buchholz.

Sources: The description by SCHMIDT (1923) is available online (see URL below).

Habitat: near and in rivers and lakes.

Diet: mostly fish

Synonymy: Paranaja multifasciata is nested within Naja in a tree based on DNA sequence data and thus WÜSTER et al. suggested to synonymize it with Naja. 
EtymologyNamed after the diminutive form (“annul-”) of Latin “anus” = ring.

The subgenus is dedicated to George Albert Boulenger, Belgian herpetologist. 
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1895. On the Type Specimen of Boulengerina stormsi, an Elapoid Snake from Central Africa. Proc. zool. Soc. London 1895: 865-866 - get paper here
  • BRANCH, W. R. & CONRADIE, W. 2013. Naja annulata annulata (Bucholtz & Peters, 1876). African Herp News (59): 50-53
  • Broadley, D.G.; Doria, C.T. & Wigge, J. 2003. Snakes of Zambia. An Atlas and Field Guide. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 280 pp. [review in Sauria 26 (3): 21]
  • Broadley, Donald G. and F. P. D. Cotterill. 2004. The reptiles of southeast Katanga, an overlooked 'hot spot'. [Congo]. African Journal of Herpetology 53 (1): 35-61. - get paper here
  • Carlino, P. & Pauwels, O.S.G. 2015. An Updated Reptile List of Ivindo National Park, the Herpetofaunal Hotspot of Gabon. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 50(3): 25-39 - get paper here
  • Chifundera, K. 1990. Snakes of Zaire and their bites. Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Chirio, Laurent and Ivan Ineich 2006. Biogeography of the reptiles of the Central African Republic. African Journal of Herpetology 55(1):23-59. - get paper here
  • Dainty, M. 2011. Die Gebänderte Wasserkobra, Boulengerina annulata. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (89): 24-28 - get paper here
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa/Giftschlangen Afrikas. Edition Chimaira, Terralog 15, 150 pp. - get paper here
  • Dollo,L. 1886. Notice sure les reptiles et batraciens. Bull. Mus. Roy. Hist. Nat. Belgique 4: 151-160 - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1888. Contribution to the knowledge of snakes of tropical Africa. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 1: 322-335 - get paper here
  • Hughes, B. 1983. African snake faunas. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 34: 311-356 - get paper here
  • Jackson, K. & Blackburn, D.C. 2007. The amphibians and reptiles of Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, Republic of Congo (Brazzaville). Salamandra 43 (3): 149-164 - get paper here
  • Jackson, Kate 2008. MEAN AND LOWLY THINGS - Snakes, Science, and Survival in the Congo. Harvard University Press, 336 pp.
  • Jackson, Kate; Ange-Ghislain Zassi-Boulou, Lis-Bethy Mavoungou, and Serge Pangou 2007. Amphibians and Reptiles of the LacTélé Community Reserve, Likouala Region, Republic of Congo (Brazzaville). Herp. Cons. Biol. 2 (2): 75-86 - get paper here
  • Kratzer, H. 1965. Über die Tanganyika-Wasserkobra (Boulengerina annulata stormsi) Salamandra 1 (3): 61-67 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, Arthur 1929. East African reptiles and amphibians in the United States National Museum. Bull. US Natl. Mus. (151): 1-135 - get paper here
  • Ogawa, Y.; Yanoshita, R.; Kuch, U.; Samejima, Y.; Mebs, D. 2004. Complete amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis of a long-chain neurotoxin from the venom of the African banded water cobra, Boulengerina annulata. Toxicon 43(7):855-858
  • Pauwels, O.S.G. & Vande weghe, J.P. 2008. Les reptiles du Gabon. Smithsonian Institution, Washington: 272 pp. - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; Kamdem Toham, A. & Chimsunchart, C. 2002. Recherches sur l’herpétofaune du Massif du Chaillu, Gabon. Bull. Inst. Roy. Sci. Nat. Belgique (Biologie) 72: 47-57 - get paper here
  • Perret, J.L. 1961. Études herpétologiques africaines III. 1. La faune ophidienne de la région camerounaise. Bull. Soc. neuchâtel. Sci. nat., 84: 133-138
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1876. Eine zweite Mittheilung über die von Hrn. Professor Dr. R. Buchholz in Westafrica gesammelten Amphibien. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1876 (Februar): 117-123 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1923. Contributions to the herpetology of the Belgian Congo based on the collection of the American Museum Congo Expedition, 1909-1915. Part II. Snakes, with field notes by Herbert Lang and James P. Chapin. Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist. 49 (1): 1-146
  • Spawls, S., Branch, B. 1995. The Dangerous Snakes of Africa. Blandford, London, 192 pp.
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995. Les serpents du Congo: liste commentée et clé de détermination. Journal of African Zoology 109 (1): 31-50
  • Wallach, V.; Wüster, W. & Broadley, D.G. 2009. In praise of subgenera: taxonomic status of cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti (Serpentes: Elapidae). Zootaxa 2236: 26–36 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1899. Ueber Reptilien und Batrachier aus Togoland, Kamerun und Deutsch-Neu-Guinea grösstentheils aus dem k. Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 49: 132-157 - get paper here
  • Witte, G. F. de 1933. Reptiles récoltés au Conge Belge par le Dr. H. Schouteden et par M. G.-F. Witte. Ann. Mus. Conge belge Zool. Ser. 1 Tome III: 53-100.
  • Wüster, Wolfgang; Steven Crookes, Ivan Ineich, Youssouph Mané, Catharine E. Pook, Jean-Francois Trape, Donald G. Broadley 2007. The phylogeny of cobras inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences: Evolution of venom spitting and the phylogeography of the African spitting cobras (Serpentes: Elapidae: Naja nigricollis complex). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45: 437–453 - get paper here
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