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Naja annulifera PETERS, 1854

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesSnouted Cobra, Banded Cobra 
SynonymNaja haje var. annulifera PETERS 1854: 624
Naia haie — BOULENGER 1887: 179 (part)
Naia haie — BOULENGER 1896: 374 (part)
Naja nigricollis — CURTIS 1911: pl. xvi (not REINHARDT)
Naja haje haje — BOGERT 1943: 288 & 64 (part) (not LINNAEUS)
Naja haje annulifera — AUERBACH 1987: 196
Naja haje annulifera — WELCH 1994: 91
Naja haje annulifera — BOYCOTT 1992
Naja annulifera — BROADLEY 1995
Naja (Uraeus) annulifera — WALLACH et al. 2009
Uraeus annuliferus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 762 
DistributionZambia (Gwembe valley = middle Zambezi), S Malawi,
Zimbabwe, C/S Mozambique (on the coast not known north of Quelimane - Kelly 1991), E Botswana, NE South Africa, Swaziland.

Type locality: “Tette” [Mozambique] Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: ZMB 2813 (Naja haje var. annulifera PETERS 1854)
Holotype: ZMB 2820 (unlocated) [Naja haje var. viridis PETERS 1873] 
CommentVenomous!

Naja annulifera anchietae BOCAGE 1879 has been elevated to species status by BROADLEY & WÜSTER (24):

Colouration.—Juveniles are yellow or greenish yellow above, usually with dark scale margins that may form irregular transverse lines, there is usually a broad black band encircling the neck; yellow below. Adults gradually darken to grey-brown or black, sometimes with lighter mottling or scattered white spots, but a few remain yellow or orange, the dark band on the back of the neck fades out. The venter is usually yellow, heavily blotched with dark brown, and the throat band, covering ca. ventrals 12- 2, becomes purple-brown, but is often obscured by general darkening posteriorly, becoming uniform blue-black on the tail.

A banded phase occurs throughout the range of the species, the banding is hardly discernable in hatchlings, but by the time a snake attains a length of 6 mm, it is black with seven to nine yellow bands on the body and one or two on the tail. The light bands are usually about half the width of the dark ones and may be divided by a narrow black transverse line. The yellow bands may encircle the body, but are frequently mottled with black ventrally. A few specimens have a single yellow band on the neck and several more caudad. One skin examined (from Mutare) had a series of yellow dorsal blotches instead of bands. One Bulawayo cobra had the broad bands golden-brown instead of black. This banded phase has been recorded in 27% of males and 18% of females 
EtymologyNamed after the diminutive form (“annul-”) of Latin “anus” = ring and the verb “fero, ferre” = carry. 
References
  • Auerbach, R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Bocage,J.V.B. du 1879. Reptiles et batraciens nouveaux d'Angola. J. Acad. Sci. Lisbon 7: 97-99
  • Bogert, Charles M. 1943. Dentitional phenomena in cobras and other elapids with notes on adaptive modifications of fangs. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 81 (3): 285-260
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boycott, R.C. 1992. An Annotated Checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Swaziland. The Conservation Trust of Swaziland - get paper here
  • Branch, William R. 1993. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 144 S.
  • Broadley, D. & Blaylock 2013. The Snakes of Zimbabwe and Botswana. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 387 pp. [book review in Sauria 35 (2): 59 and Copeia 2014: 388] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1958. Snakes of Southern Rhodesia. 6. The Egyptian cobra (Naja haje haje). Afr. Wild Life 12: 125-128.
  • Broadley, D.G. 1968. A review of the African cobras of the genus Naja (Serpentes: Elapinae). Arnoldia (Rhodesia) (ser. 3) 29: 1-14
  • Broadley, D.G. 1995. The snouted cobra, Naja annulifera, a valid species in southern Africa. J. Herp. Assoc. Africa 44: 26-32. - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G.; Doria, C.T. & Wigge, J. 2003. Snakes of Zambia. An Atlas and Field Guide. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 280 pp. [review in Sauria 26 (3): 21]
  • CURTIS, H. 1911. Notes on two specimens of spitting snakes from southern Rhodesia. Rep. Wellcome Res. Lab. Kharoum 4: 195-200.
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa/Giftschlangen Afrikas. Edition Chimaira, Terralog 15, 150 pp. - get paper here
  • Haagner,G.V.; Branch,W.R. & Haagner,A.J.F. 2000. Notes on a collection of reptiles from Zambia and adjacent areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Annals of the Eastern Cape Museum 1: 1 – 25
  • Jacobsen, Niels H.G.; Errol W. Pietersen & Darren W. Pietersen 2010. A preliminary herpetological survey of the Vilanculos Coastal Wildlife Sanctuary on the San Sebastian Peninsula, Vilankulo, Mozambique. Herpetology Notes 3: 181-193 - get paper here
  • Mastenbroek, Richard 2011. Naja annulifera Peters 1854. Litteratura Serpentium 31 (2): 99-119 - get paper here
  • Peters,W.C.H. 1854. Diagnosen neuer Batrachier, welche zusammen mit der früher (24. Juli und 17. August) gegebenen Übersicht der Schlangen und Eidechsen mitgetheilt werden. Ber. Bekanntmach. Geeignet. Verhandl. Königl.-Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1854: 614-628
  • Pietersen, Darren W.<br />Pietersen, Errol W.<br />Haacke, Wulf D. 2013. First herpetological appraisal of the Parque Nacional de Banhine, Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History 3: 153-163 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, A. D. & Gruschwitz, M. 2004. Neues vom Blouberg Conservation Project - ein Beispiel für praktische Naturschutzarbeit im neuen Südafrika. Elaphe 12 (2): 55-59
  • Slowinski, Joseph B. and Wolfgang Wüster. 2000. A new cobra (Elapidae: Naja) from Myanmar (Burma). Herpetologica 56 (2): 257-270 - get paper here
  • Spawls, S., Branch,B. 1995. The Dangerous Snakes of Africa. Blandford, London, 192 pp.
  • Trape, J.F.; Chirio, L.; Broadley, D.G. & Wüster, W. 2009. Phylogeography and systematic revision of the Egyptian cobra (Serpentes: Elapidae: Naja haje) species complex, with the description of a new species from West Africa. Zootaxa 2236: 1–25 - get paper here
  • Wallach, V.; Wüster, W. & Broadley, D.G. 2009. In praise of subgenera: taxonomic status of cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti (Serpentes: Elapidae). Zootaxa 2236: 26–36 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Winchell, S. 2011. Kobras. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (89): 16-22 - get paper here
 
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