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Naja sumatrana MÜLLER, 1890

IUCN Red List - Naja sumatrana - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesE: Equatorial Spitting cobra, Golden Spitting Cobra
G: Äquatoriale Speikobra, Sumatra-Kobra 
SynonymNaja tripudians var. sumatrana MÜLLER 1890: 277
Naja tripudians var. nigra PETERS 1859: 271 (nomen neglecta)
Naia tripudians var leucodira BOULENGER 1896
Naia tripudians var. miolepis BOULENGER 1896
Naia tripudians var. caeca BOULENGER 1896 (part.)
Naia tripudians var. sputatrix — BOULENGER (part.) 1896
Naja sumatrana miolepis BOULENGER 1896
Naja tripudians paucisquamis PERACCA 1899
Naja tripudians sumatrana — SCHENCKEL 1901
Naia tripudians leucodira ROSEN 1905
Naja naja sputatrix — STEJNEGER (part) 1907
Naja naja miolepis GRIFFIN 1909
Naja naja paucisquamis BARBOUR 1912
Naja naja leucodira MERTENS 1934
Naja naja sumatrana — KOPSTEIN 1935
Naja kaouthia sputatrix — DERANIYAGALA 1960
Naja sputatrix malayae DERANIYAGALA 1961
Naja sputatrix miolepis DERANIYAGALA 1961
Naja naja sumatrana — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Naja sputatrix sputatrix — LINGENHOLE & TRUTNAU 1989
Naja sumatrana — WÜSTER & THORPE 1989
Naja sumatrana — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 424
Naja sumatrana — COX et al. 1998: 29
Naja (Naja) sumatrana — WALLACH et al. 2009
Naja sumatrana — WALLACH et al. 2014: 463 
DistributionMalaysia (Peninsula, East Malaysia, Pulau Pangkor, Pulau Tioman), Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo, Bangka, Belitung),
Philippines (Palawan: Calamian Islands etc.)

Type locality: Solok, Sumatra. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: NMBA 2244, a female (F. Müller).
Holotype: ZMB 7098 [Naja tripudians nigra] 

Populations from the Malayan Peninsula were for a long time referred to as Naja naja sputatrix, those from Borneo as Naja naja miolepis.

N. tripudans var. nigra: type: ZMB 7098, terra typica: Sarawak Borneo Indonesia, leg Doria. 
  • Auliya, M. 2006. Taxonomy, Life History, and conservation of giant reptiles in west Kalimantan. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 432 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1895. Second report on additions to the lizard collection in the Natural History Museum. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1894: 722-736 [published in April 1895 fide A. Bauer] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Gaulke M. 1999. Die Herpetofauna von Calauit Island (Calamianes-Inseln, Provinz Palawan, Philippinen) (Amphibia et Reptilia). Faun. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 21 (19)
  • Grismer, L.L., McGuire, J.A.; Sosa, R. & Kaiser, H. 2002. Revised checklist and comments on the terrestrial herpetofauna of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. Herpetological Review 33 (1): 26-29 - get paper here
  • Grossmann,W. & Tillack,F. 2001. Bemerkungen zur Herpetofauna des Khao Lak, Phang Nga, thailändische Halbinsel. Teil II: Reptilia: Serpentes; Testudines; Diskussion. Sauria 23 (1): 25-40 - get paper here
  • Grossmann,W. & Tillack,F. 2001. Bemerkungen zur Herpetofauna des Khao Lak, Phang Nga, thailändische Halbinsel. Teil III: Ergebnisse der Jahre 1999 und 2000. Sauria 23 (3): 21-34 - get paper here
  • Kopstein, Felix 1935. Herpetologische Notizen XI. Bemerkung über Naja naja leucodira (Blgr.). Treubia 15 (2): 151-155 - get paper here
  • Leviton,A.E. 1965. Contributions to a review of Philippine snakes. VII. The snakes of the genera Naja and Ophiophagus. Philippine J. Sci. 93: 531-550 - get paper here
  • Lingenhöle, S. & Trutnau, L. 1989. Über die Kobras der Gattung Naja LAURENTI 1758 in Thailand. Herpetofauna 11 (58): 6-13 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R.; Manthey, U.; Vogel, G. Hoffmann, P. & Kosuch, J. 2002. Amphibians and reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). A.R.G. Ganther Verlag, Rugell, 404 pp.
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • Müller,F. 1887. Fünfter Nachtrag zum Katalog der herpetologischen Sammlung des Basler Museums. Verh. Naturf. Ges. Basel 8: 249-296 - get paper here
  • Onn, Chan Kin; J. van Rooijen, L. Lee Grismer, Daicus Belabut,, Mohd. Abdul Muin Md. Akil, Hamidi Jamaludin, Rick Gregory, and Norhayati Ahmad 2010. FIRST REPORT ON THE HERPETOFAUNA OF PULAU PANGKOR, PERAK, MALAYSIA. Russ. J. Herpetol. 17 (2): 139 – 146 - get paper here
  • ONN, CHAN KIN; L. LEE. GRISMER, DIONYSIUS S. SHARMA, DAICUS BELABUT, and NORHAYATI AHMA 2009. New herpetofaunal records for Perlis State Park and adjacent areas. Malayan Nature Journal 61 (4): 255 - 262
  • Peracca, M.G. 1899. Voyage de MM. M. Bedot et C. Pictet dans l'Archipel Malais. Reptiles et Batraciens de l'Archipel Malais. Revue suisse de Zoologie. Annales de la Societe Zoologique suisse et du Musee d'Histoire naturelle de Geneve 7(2): 321-330 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1859. Nachrichten von Hrn. Fedor Jagor, der auf eigne Kosten nach Ostindien und den Philippinen gereist ist und von der Akademie mit Instructionen für das Sammeln naturwissenschaftlicher Gegenstände versehen wurde. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1859 (März): 269-271 - get paper here
  • Rooijen, J. 2009. Estimating the snake species richness of the Santubong Peninsula (Borneo) in two different ways. Contributions to Zoology 78 (4): 141-147
  • Rooijen, J. van & Myriam van Rooijen. 2007. The land snakes of the Santubong Peninsula, Sarawak, Borneo: A preliminary list of species with natural history notes. Russ. J. Herpetol. 14 (1):27-38 - get paper here
  • Rooijen, J. van, Chan Kin Onn, L. Lee Grismer & Norhayati Ahmad 2011. Estimating the herpetofaunal species richness of Pangkor Island, Peninsular Malaysia. Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 3-8 - get paper here
  • Slowinski, Joseph B. and Wolfgang Wüster. 2000. A new cobra (Elapidae: Naja) from Myanmar (Burma). Herpetologica 56 (2): 257-270 - get paper here
  • Sy, E. Y., Q. S. Dycoco, Jr, A. Z. A. Rodriguez, S. G. Du, M. A. S. Wisco, C. M. M. Pangilinan and G. S. Banaguas 2016. Geographic Distribution: Naja sumatrana (Equatorial Spitting Cobra). Herpetological Review 47(3): 427-428.
  • Teo, R.C.H. & Rajathurai, S. 1997. Mammals, reptiles and amphibians in the Nature Reserves of Singapore - diversity, abundance and distribution. Proc. Nature Reserves Survey Seminar. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 49: 353-425
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • Wallach, V.; Wüster, W. & Broadley, D.G. 2009. In praise of subgenera: taxonomic status of cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti (Serpentes: Elapidae). Zootaxa 2236: 26–36 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wüster, Wolfgang 1993. A century of confusion: Asiatic cobras revisited. Vivarium 4 (4): 14-18
  • Wüster,W. 1996. Taxonomic changes and toxinology: Systematic revisions of the asiatic cobras (Naja naja complex). Toxicon 34 (4): 399-406
  • Wüster,W.; Thorpe,R.S. 1989. Population affinities of the Asiatic cobra (Naja naja) species complex in south-east Asia: reliability and random resampling. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 36: 391-409. - get paper here
  • Wüster,W.; Thorpe,R.S. 1991. Asiatic cobras: Systematics and snakebite. Experientia 47: 205-209
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