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Nannoscincus exos BAUER & SADLIER, 2000

IUCN Red List - Nannoscincus exos - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Eugongylinae (Eugongylini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymNannoscincus exos BAUER & SADLIER 2000: 250
Nannoscincus exos SADLIER, BAUER & WHITAKER, 2002
Nannoscincus exos — SADLIER et al. 2014 
DistributionNew Caledonia

Type locality: valley west of Ouinguip, 20° 38’ 16’’ S, 164° 52’ 02’’ E.  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 1997.3800 (fomerly AMS R151348) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Nannoscincus exos can be distinguished from all other members of the genus by the following combination of characters: frontoparietals fused; loreal single; left oviduct lost in females; lower eyelid with a semi-translucent window; ear opening minute; body scales smooth; dorsal colour distinctly lighter than lateral; h) ear opening positioned two scales posterior to lower secondary temporal; presacral vertebrae 30; phalangeal formula for pes (Sadlier et al. 2002: 251).

DESCRIPTION. Based on both type specimens unless stated otherwise.
Measurements: maximum snout to vent length 37 mm; distance from axilla to groin 62.3-63.5% of SVL ( = 62.9); distance from forelimb to snout 32.4-33.3% of SVL ( = 32.9); hindlimb length 18.9-20.3% of SVL ( = 19.6). Scalation: prefrontals very small and widely separated, absent on left side of paratype; supraciliaries 7; ear opening positioned two scales posterior to lower secondary temporal; body scales smooth, midbody scale rows 22; paravertebral scales 50-54 ( =52, sd. =2.83); scales on top of fourth finger 4; lamellae beneath fourth finger 4-5 ( =4.5); scales on top of fourth toe 6; lamellae beneath fourth toe 13-14 ( = 13.75, sd. = 0.35).
Osteology: presacral vertebrae 30; phalangeal formula for manus and pes both
Colouration: holotype - dorsal colour mid brown with scattered dark flecks aligned along scales either side of vertebral axis to form a broken line down middle of back; nape with an obvious pale blotch with dark markings posteriorly. Lateral surface darker than dorsal, unmarked. Dorsal and lateral surfaces defined by a dark brown to black (darker than lateral colour) dorsolateral stripe, pale-edged above. Dark dorsolateral stripe extends from back of eye (inflected over tympanic region) to level of hindlimbs, breaking up and becoming poorly defined along tail. Head slightly darker at sides than adjacent areas of body and extending around lower edge of rostral scale and inflecting upwards to form a dark midrostral streak in boldly marked individuals, subocular labials with pale markings. Ventral surface pale with scattered brown markings at ventrolateral edge, throat region unmarked.
Paratype slightly faded overall and differs from holotype in having a uniform dorsal colour without dark vertebral markings and a heavier concentration of scattered brown markings at edges of ventral surface (Sadlier et al. 2002: 251). 
CommentThe original description was supposed to appear as SADLIER, BAUER & WHITAKER, 2000. However, BAUER & SADLIER’s monograph (2000) was published earlier and therefore has to be considered as original description.

Distribution: see map in SADLIER et al. 2014: 54.

Abundance: only known from the type locality (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe species name is from the Latin exos, for lacking or without bone and alludes the reduced number of phalanges in the pes which clearly distinguishes Nannoscincus exos from its sister species N. hanchisteus and N. humectus. 
  • Bauer, A. M. & SADLIER, R. A. 2000. The herpetofauna of New Caledonia. Contributions to Herpetology, 17; Society for Study Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Sadlier, R. A., A. M. BAUER & A. H. WHITAKER 2002. The scincid lizard genus Nannoscincus from New Caledonia in Southwest Pacific: a review of the morphology and distribution of species in the Nannoscincus mariei species group, including the description of three new species from Province Nord. Zoologica Neocaledonica 5. Systématic et endemisme en Nouvellee-Calédonie. pp 233-255. J. Naut & P. Grandcolas (Eds). Memoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Vol. 187 , Paris
  • SADLIER, Ross A.; Aaron M. BAUER, Perry L. WOOD Jr., Sarah A. SMITH, Anthony H. WHITAKER & Todd JACKMAN 2014. Cryptic speciation in the New Caledonian lizard genus Nannoscincus (Reptilia: Scincidae) including the description of a new species and recognition of Nannoscincus fuscus Gunther. Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 206: 45-68.
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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