Neusticurus bicarinatus (LINNAEUS, 1758)
Can you confirm these amateur observations of Neusticurus bicarinatus?
|Higher Taxa||Gymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)|
|Common Names||Two-faced Neusticurus|
|Synonym||Lacerta bicarinata LINNAEUS 1758: 201|
Lacerta Bicarinata — LACÉPÈDE 1788
Lacerta bicarinata — BONNATERRE 1789
Lacerta bicarinata — SHAW & NODDER 1813: plate 1063
Thorictis bicarinatus — WAGLER 1830: 153 (fide MASSARY & HOOGMOED)
Teius A. [da] Bicarinata — GRAY 1831: 29
Neusticurus bicarinatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 64
Neusticurus (Custa) bicarinatus — O’SHAUGHNESSY 1879: 295
Neusticurus bicarinatus — PETERS et al. 1970: 206
Neusticurus rudis — GASC 1990: 55 (part.)
Neusticurus bicarinatus — CASTOE et al. 2004
|Distribution||Guiana, Suriname, French Guiana, E Venezuela, Guyana, |
Brazil (Para, Rondonia, Amapa, Maranhao, Amazonas)
Type locality: “Indiis” (in error)
|Types||Holotype: ZMUU (= UUZM) 70|
|Diagnosis||Diagnosis: Neusticurus differs from members of Alopoglossinae by having its tongue covered in imbricate, scale-like papillae instead of oblique plicae (Harris, 1994), from Gymnophthalminae by having moveable eyelids, from Rhachisaurinae by having external ear openings, and from Ecpleopinae by having heterogeneous dorsal scalation. Within Cercosaurinae (sensu Castoe et al., 2004), Neusticurus differs from all genera except Echinosaura, Potamites and Teuchocercus by having heterogeneous dorsal scales. It differs from Echinosaura by lacking basal spines on the hemipenes, from Teuchocercus by lacking conical scales on the tail, and from Potamites (character states for Potamites in parentheses) by having a strongly compressed tail (slightly compressed), ventral scales imbricate (subimbricate ventral scales), and hemipenes lacking calcareous spinules on flounces (calcareous spinules on hemipenes) (after DOAN & CASTOE 2005).|
|Comment||Lacerta bicarinata LINNAEUS 1758 has been confused with Tupinambis lacertinus in the older literature. See entry for Crocodilurus lacertinus for more details.|
Type Species: Lacerta bicarinata LINNAEUS 1758 is the type species of the genus Neusticurus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839.
Probably also in Bolivia (fide LANGSTROTH 2005).
Definition (after DOAN & CASTOE 2005): Tongue with imbricate, scale-like papillae. Nostril pierced in a single nasal; nasals separated usually by paired or single frontonasals; prefrontals paired or irregular, sometimes with a diamond shaped scale between frontonasal and prefrontals; interparietal usually bordered by a pair of parietals laterally, by a series of 3 9 smaller scales posteriorly; occipitals differentiated or not; temporal scales differentiated or not, irregular, sometimes keeled; rostral large, mental and postmental single, followed by several paired chin shields; gular crease feeble or absent. Collar fold moderately to well developed. Lower eyelid developed, with a palpebral disc divided into 3 6 scales, sometimes pigmented. Tympanum slightly to deeply recessed, overhung by surrounding scales of surface of head. Dorsal scales uniformly small, or heterogeneous, imbricate, with keeled tuberculate scales, sometimes intermixed with small flat or convex scales, in longitudinal, oblique, or transverse and oblique rows. Ventral scales usually flat, rounded posteriorly, imbricate, in transverse and 8–10 longitudinal rows, lateralmost rows convex or keeled in some species. Limbs pentadactyl, digits clawed; forefoot with enlarged, plate-like scales along inner margin between thumb and wrist; under side of third and fourth toes with paired scales proximally, inner scale a rounded tubercle. Tail strongly compressed; a double caudal crest, feebly to strongly developed. Femoral and preanal pores form an unbroken series: 32–72 in males; 1 18 in females. Preanal plate in 2 3 rows, posteriormost row with 5 7 scales in both sexes. Males and females with or without conspicuous, white-centred, black-bordered ocelli on their lateral body surfaces. Hemipenis without basal hooks; flounces without minute calcareous spinules.