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Neusticurus bicarinatus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesTwo-faced Neusticurus 
SynonymLacerta bicarinata LINNAEUS 1758: 201
Lacerta Bicarinata — LACÉPÈDE 1788
Lacerta bicarinata — BONNATERRE 1789
Lacerta bicarinata — SHAW & NODDER 1813: plate 1063
Thorictis bicarinatus — WAGLER 1830: 153 (fide MASSARY & HOOGMOED)
Teius A. [da] Bicarinata — GRAY 1831: 29
Neusticurus bicarinatus - DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 64
Neusticurus (Custa) bicarinatus — O’SHAUGHNESSY 1879: 295
Neusticurus bicarinatus — PETERS et al. 1970: 206
Neusticurus rudis — GASC 1990: 55 (part.)
Neusticurus bicarinatus — CASTOE et al. 2004 
DistributionGuiana, Suriname, French Guiana, E Venezuela, Guyana,
Brazil (Para, Rondonia, Amapa, Maranhao, Amazonas)

Type locality: “Indiis” (in error) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: ZMUU (= UUZM) 70 
CommentLacerta bicarinata LINNAEUS 1758 has been confused with Tupinambis lacertinus in the older literature. See entry for Crocodilurus lacertinus for more details.

Type Species: Lacerta bicarinata LINNAEUS 1758 is the type species of the genus Neusticurus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839.

Probably also in Bolivia (fide LANGSTROTH 2005).

Definition (after DOAN & CASTOE 2005): Tongue with imbricate, scale-like papillae. Nostril pierced in a single nasal; nasals separated usually by paired or single frontonasals; prefrontals paired or irregular, sometimes with a diamond shaped scale between frontonasal and prefrontals; interparietal usually bordered by a pair of parietals laterally, by a series of 3 9 smaller scales posteriorly; occipitals differentiated or not; temporal scales differentiated or not, irregular, sometimes keeled; rostral large, mental and postmental single, followed by several paired chin shields; gular crease feeble or absent. Collar fold moderately to well developed. Lower eyelid developed, with a palpebral disc divided into 3 6 scales, sometimes pigmented. Tympanum slightly to deeply recessed, overhung by surrounding scales of surface of head. Dorsal scales uniformly small, or heterogeneous, imbricate, with keeled tuberculate scales, sometimes intermixed with small flat or convex scales, in longitudinal, oblique, or transverse and oblique rows. Ventral scales usually flat, rounded posteriorly, imbricate, in transverse and 8–10 longitudinal rows, lateralmost rows convex or keeled in some species. Limbs pentadactyl, digits clawed; forefoot with enlarged, plate-like scales along inner margin between thumb and wrist; under side of third and fourth toes with paired scales proximally, inner scale a rounded tubercle. Tail strongly compressed; a double caudal crest, feebly to strongly developed. Femoral and preanal pores form an unbroken series: 32–72 in males; 1 18 in females. Preanal plate in 2 3 rows, posteriormost row with 5 7 scales in both sexes. Males and females with or without conspicuous, white-centred, black-bordered ocelli on their lateral body surfaces. Hemipenis without basal hooks; flounces without minute calcareous spinules.

Diagnosis: Neusticurus differs from members of Alopoglossinae by having its tongue covered in imbricate, scale-like papillae instead of oblique plicae (Harris, 1994), from Gymnophthalminae by having moveable eyelids, from Rhachisaurinae by having external ear openings, and from Ecpleopinae by having heterogeneous dorsal scalation. Within Cercosaurinae (sensu Castoe et al., 2004), Neusticurus differs from all genera except Echinosaura, Potamites and Teuchocercus by having heterogeneous dorsal scales. It differs from Echinosaura by lacking basal spines on the hemipenes, from Teuchocercus by lacking conical scales on the tail, and from Potamites (character states for Potamites in parentheses) by having a strongly compressed tail (slightly compressed), ventral scales imbricate (subimbricate ventral scales), and hemipenes lacking calcareous spinules on flounces (calcareous spinules on hemipenes) (after DOAN & CASTOE 2005). 
References
  • Avila-Pires, Teresa C. S. and Laurie J. Vitt. 1998. A new species of Neusticurus (Reptilia: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Rio Juruá, Acre, Brazil. Herpetologica 54 (2):235-245. - get paper here
  • Avila-Pires,T.C.S. 1995. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1-706 - get paper here
  • Bonnaterre, P.J. 1789. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature, . . . Erpétologie. Panckoucke, Paris, xxviii+71 pp. (+ plates + index) - get paper here
  • Castoe, T.A.; Doan, T.M. & Parkinson, C.L. 2004. Data partitions and complex models in Bayesian analysis: the phylogeny of Gymnophthalmid lizards. Systematic Biology 53 (3): 448-469 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Costa-Campos, Carlos E. 2017. Neusticurus bicarinatus (Two-faced Neusticurus) Predation Herpetological Review 48 (1): 196-197 - get paper here
  • Dixon J R; Lamar W W 1981. A new species of microteiid lizard (genus Neusticurus) from Colombia. Journal of Herpetology 15 (3): 309-314. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol.5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Gasc J P 1990. Les Lézards de Guyane. Editions R. Chabaud, Paris.
  • Hoogmoed M.S.; de Avila-Pires T C S 1991. Annotoated checklist of the herpetofauna of Petit Saut, Sinnamary River, French Guiana. Zoologische Mededelingen 65: 53-88 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed, M.S., & Lescure, J. 1975. An annotated checklist of the lizards of French Guiana, mainly based on two recent collections. Zool. Meded. (Leiden) 49(13): 141-172. - get paper here
  • Lacépède, B. G. E. 1788. Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupe des Ovipares et des Serpens. Vol.1. Imprimerie du Roi, Hôtel de Thou, Paris, xvii + 651 pp. - get paper here
  • Langstroth, R.P. 2005. Adiciones probables y confirmadas para la saurofauna boliviana. Kempffiana 1 (1): 101-128
  • Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp. - get paper here
  • Oliveira, D.P.; S.M. Souza; L. Frazão; A.P. Almeida; T. Hrbek 2014. Lizards from central Jatapú River, Amazonas, Brazil. Check List 10 (1): 46-53 - get paper here
  • O’Shaughnessy,A.W.E. 1879. Description of new species of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 4: 295-303 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Shaw, George & Nodder, Frederick P. (Eds.) 1813. The Naturalist's Miscellany [...], Vol. XXIV. London, Nodder & Co., plates 1021-1064, 170 unnumbered pages [published in monthly issues between August 1, 1812, and July 1, 1813] - get paper here
  • Uzzell, Thomas M. 1966. Teid Lizards of the genus Neusticurus (Reptilia, Sauria). Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 132 (5): 279-327
  • Vitt, L.; Magnusson, W.E.; Ávila-Pires, T.C. & Lima, A.P. 2008. Guide to the Lizards of Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Central Amazonia. Attema, Manaus, 180 pp.
 
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