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Oligodon formosanus (GÜNTHER, 1872)

IUCN Red List - Oligodon formosanus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesE: Formosa Kukri Snake
Chinese: 台湾小头蛇 
SynonymSimotes formosanus GÜNTHER 1872: 20
Simotes bicatenatus MÜLLER 1878: 595 (not of GÜNTHER)
Simotes formosanus — FISCHER 1886: 60
Simotes hainanensis BOETTGER 1894: 133
Simotes formosanus — BOULENGER 1894: 222
Holarchus formosanus — STEJNEGER 1907: 354
Holarchus nesiotis BARBOUR 1908: 318
Holarchus formosanus hainanensis — BARBOUR 1909
Holarchus nesiotis — BARBOUR 1909
Holarchus formosanus violaceoides MELL 1930
Holarchus formosanus brunnea MELL 1930
Holarchus formosanus brunneus — MELL 1931 [1929]
Holarchus formosanus hainanensis — MELL 1931 [1929]
Holarchus nesiotis — MELL 1931 [1929]
Oligodon formosanus — SMITH 1943
Oligodon formosanus — LAZELL et al. 1999
Oligodon formosanus — GREEN et al. 2010
Oligodon formosanus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 497 
DistributionVietnam, Taiwan (incl. Lanyu),
S China (Chekiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, Nan Ao Island, Hainan, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Zhejiang, Yunnan)

Type locality: Takou (= Kaohsiung), Formosa (= Taiwan)  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.4.42 (Wallach et al. 2014: 497), also given as MCZ R-7107 
CommentDiet: eggs, including lizard eggs 
EtymologyNamed after its distribution in Taiwan (= Formosa). 
  • Barbour, THOMAS 1908. Some new reptiles and amphibians. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 51 (12): 315-325 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1909. Notes on Amphibia and Reptilia from Eastern Asia. Proc. New England zool. Club 4: 53-78, 2 plates - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. 1894. Materialien zur herpetologischen Fauna von China. III. Liste der von der Insel Hainan bekannten Kriechtiere. Ber. Senckenberg. Naturf. Ges.: 129-152 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Coleman, K.; Rothfuss, L.A.; Ota, H.; Kardong, K.V. 1993. Kinematics of Egg-eating by the Specialized Snake Oligodon formosanus (Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 27 (3): 320-327 - get paper here
  • David, P.; Vogel, G. & Pauwels, O.S.G. 2008. A new species of the genus Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826 (Squamata: Colubridae) from southern Vietnam and Cambodia. Zootaxa 1939: 19–37 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1886. Herpetologische Notizen. Abh. Geb. Naturw. Hamb. 9: 51-67 (1-19) - get paper here
  • Green, Marc D.; Nikolai L. Orlov and Robert W. Murphy 2010. Toward a Phylogeny of the Kukri Snakes, Genus Oligodon. Asian Herpetological Research 1 (1): 1-21 - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1872. Seventh account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 9: 13-37 - get paper here
  • Hidetoshi Ota 1991. Taxonomic Status of Mabuya multicarinata (Gray, 1845) (Scincidae: Squamata: Reptilia) from Taiwan, with Comments on the Herpetofauna of Lanyu Island. Bull. Coll. Sci., Univ. Ryukyus, No. 51: 11-18
  • JIANG, Ke; Tianbo CHEN, Patrick DAVID, Gernot VOGEL, Mian HOU, Zhiyong YUAN, Yuanjun MENG and Jing CHE 2012. On the Occurrence of Oligodon joynsoni (Smith, 1917) in China (Squamata: Colubridae). Asian Herpetological Research 3 (4): 316–321 - get paper here
  • Lazell,J.; Kolby, J.; Lin, Y. M.; Zhuang, D. H. & Lu, W. 1999. Reptiles and amphibians from Nan Ao Island, China. Postilla 217: 1-18 - get paper here
  • Mell,R. 1931. List of Chinese snakes. Lingnan Sci. Jour., Canton, 8 [1929]: 199-219.
  • Messenger, K. R. 2017. Oligodon formosanus (Taiwan Kukri Snake) Diet / scavenging. Herpetological Review 48 (2): 456-457 - get paper here
  • Müller, F. 1878. Über einige seltene und neue Reptilien aus Guatemala. Verh. Naturf. Ges. Basel, 6: 390-411 - get paper here
  • NEANG, THY; L. LEE GRISMER & JENNIFER C. DALTRY 2012. A new species of kukri snake (Colubridae: Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826) from the Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary, Cardamom Mountains, southwest Cambodia. Zootaxa 3388: 41–55 - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • NGUYEN, SANG NGOC; VU DANG HOANG NGUYEN, SON HONG LE, ROBERT W. MURPHY 2016. A new species of kukri snake (Squamata: Colubridae: Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam. Zootaxa 4139 (2): 261–273 - get paper here
  • Pike, David A.; Rulon W. Clark, Andrea Manica, Hui-Yun Tseng, Jung-Ya Hsu & Wen-San Huang 2016. Surf and turf: predation by egg-eating snakes has led to the evolution of parental care in a terrestrial lizard,. Scientific Reports 6: 22207, doi:10.1038/srep22207 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Stejneger, L. 1910. The batrachians and reptiles of Formosa. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 38: 91-114 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Stejneger,L. 1898. On a collection of batrachians and reptiles from Formosa and Adjacent Islands. J. Coll. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 12: 215-225 - get paper here
  • Tseng, H.-Y., Liao, C.-P., Hsu, J.-Y., Wang, L.-Y., & Huang, W.-S. 2019. Parental behavior drives large bite force in an insular skink population. Journal of Zoology, 307(3), 223–231 - get paper here
  • VASSILIEVA, ANNA B.; PETER GEISSLER, EDUARD A. GALOYAN, NIKOLAY Jr A. POYARKOV, ROBERT WAYNE VAN DEVENDER, WOLFGANG BÖHME 2013. A new species of Kukri Snake (Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826; Squamata: Colubridae) from the Cat Tien National Park, southern Vietnam. Zootaxa 3702 (3): 233–246 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
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