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Oxyrhopus melanogenys (TSCHUDI, 1845)

IUCN Red List - Oxyrhopus melanogenys - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesOxyrhopus melanogenys melanogenys (TSCHUDI 1845)
Oxyrhopus melanogenys orientalis CUNHA & NASCIMENTO 1983 
Common NamesTschudi's False Coral Snake 
SynonymSphenocephalus melanogenys TSCHUDI 1845: 163
Oxyrhopus tergeminus — JAN 1870 (fide STARACE 1998)
Tachymenis bitorquata GÜNTHER 1872: 19
Oxyrhopus melanogenys — BOULENGER 1896: 105
Oxyrhopus melanogenys — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 232
Oxyrhopus melanogenys— DO NASCIMENTO et al. 1987
Oxyrhopus aff. melanogenys — STARACE 1998: 303
Oxyrhopus melanogenys — LEHR 2002: 95
Oxyrhopus melanogenys — WALLACH et al. 2014: 519

Oxyrhopus melanogenys orientalis CUNHA & NASCIMENTO 1983
Oxyrhopus melanogenys orientalis — FROTA et al. 2005 
DistributionBolivia, Peru, Brazil (Rondonia, Amazonas, Pará: [HR 31: 255], Mato Grosso, S Ceará), Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana

orientalis: Peru, Brazil (Pará)

Type locality: Peru Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesLectotype: MHNN; Type: MCZ, but unknown fide PETERS 1960 
CommentSimilar species: Oxyrhopus vanidicus from Colombia only slightly differs in colour pattern from the very similar O. melanogenys. Lynch (2009) stated that some populations formerly assigned to O. melanogenys and O. aff. melanogenys from northern South America are Oxyrhopus vanidicus. RIVAS et al. 2012 could not find consistent differences between O. vanidicus and O. melanogenys. RIVAS et al. consider all the specimens previously referred to O. aff. melanogenys and O. trigeminus in Venezuela as O. melanogenys.

Comparisons: O. melanogenys has been confused with the similar-appearing O. trigeminus. Oxyrhopus melanogenys can be distinguished from O. trigeminus by its entirely black head (snout white with black spots in O. trigeminus), by the outer black bands of the triads narrower than the central black band (all three black bands equal) and by the white bands of triads narrower than the black bands (equal to the black bands) [MacCulloch et al. 2009].

Distribution: not in Venezuela but vanidicus is (Luis Esqueda, pers. comm., 21 April 2016, see also Natera-Mumaw et al. 2015). 
References
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  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio;, Reginaldo Assêncio Machado & Luiz Carlos Batista Turci 2011. Herpetofauna da área do Igarapé Esperança na Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre – Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 11 (3): 117-144 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Claessen, H. 2003. De slangen van de Guyanas Deel VII. Lacerta 61 (6): 221-234 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Crnobrna, B., M. Armes & H. Fonseca Williams 2017. Observations of feeding behaviour of an Oxyrhopus melanogenys (Serpentes: Dipsadidae): description of a novel prey-processing manoeuvre. Salamandra 53 (1): 126-130 - get paper here
  • Cunha, O.R. da and Nascimento,F.P. 1983. Ofidios da Amazonia. XIX. As expécies de Oxyrhopus Wagler, com uma subespécie nova, e Pseudoboa Schneider, na Amaônia orientale e Maranhão (Ophidia: Colubridae). Bol. Mus. Paraense Emilio Goeldi, zool. 112: 42 pp.
  • Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 2005. Cusco Amazónico: The Lives of Amphibians and Reptiles in an Amazonian Rainforest. Comstock Pub Assoc.
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  • Günther,A. 1872. Seventh account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 9: 13-37 - get paper here
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  • Nascimento F Paiva do; de Avila-Pires T C Sauer; da Cunha O Rodrigues 1987. Os repteis da area de Carajas, Para, Brasil (Squamata). 2. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi NOVA SERIE ZOOLOGIA 3(1) 1987: 33-65
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
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  • Ribeiro, S. C., I. J. Roberto, D. L. Sales, R. W. Ávila & W. O. Almeida 2012. Amphibians and reptiles from the Araripe bioregion, northeastern Brazil. Salamandra 48 (3): 133-146 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
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  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Tschudi,J. J. von 1845. Reptilium conspectum quae in republica Peruana reperiuntur er pleraque observata vel collecta sunt in itenere. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 11 (1): 150-170 [reprint 1968, SSAR; sometimes cited as being published in 1846]. - get paper here
  • Waddell, Emily; Andrew Whitworth, and Ross MacLeod<br /> 2016. A First Test of the Thread Bobbin Tracking Technique as a Method for Studying the Ecology of <br />Herpetofauna in a Tropical Rainforest. Herp. Cons. Biol. 11 (1) - get paper here
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