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Parvoscincus duwendorum SILER, LINKEM, COBB, WATTERS, CUMMINGS, DIESMOS & BROWN, 2014

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesCordillera Aquatic Skink 
SynonymParvoscincus duwendorum SILER, LINKEM, COBB, WATTERS, CUMMINGS, DIESMOS & BROWN 2014
Parvoscincus leucospilos — LINKEM et al. 2011 (part) 
DistributionPhilippines (Luzon)

Type locality: Mt. Pao, Barangay Adams, Municipality of Adams, Ilocos Norte Province, Luzon Island, Philippines (N: 18.438°, E: 120.878°; WGS-84; 750 m in elevation.  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: PNM 9793 (RMB Field No. 14261, formerly KU 329929), subadult, collected on 18 June 2011, by RMB. 
CommentDiagnosis. Parvoscincus duwendorum can be distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) adult body size presumed medium (subadult SVL 33.5 mm); (2) Toe-IV lamellae 12; (3) supralabials seven; (4) infralabials eight; (5) midbody scale rows 26; (6) paravertebral scale rows 60; (7) prefrontals separated; (8) prefrontals contact first supraocular; (9) frontoparietals fused; (10) head pigmentation moderately mottled; (11) upper arm pigmentation present, patchy; (12) cloacal scale dark pigmentation absent; (13) subcaudal pigmentation absent; (14) dorsal white spots faint; (15) dorsal white bands 15; (16) tail dorsolaterally compressed; and (17) semi-aquatic (Tables 2, 3 in Siler et al. 2014).

Comparisons. Characters distinguishing Parvoscincus duwendorum from all species of Parvoscincus are summarized in Tables 2 and 3 in Siler et al. 2014. Parvoscincus duwendorum most closely resembles P. manananggalae, P. leucospilos, and P. tikbalangi. However, P. duwendorum differs from these three taxa by having Toe-IV lamellae 12 (vs. 17 [P. manananggalae], 15–17 [P. leucospilos], 14–16 [P. tikbalangi]), fewer midbody scale rows (26 vs. 32–33 [P. manananggalae], 30–34 [P. leucospilos], 28–32 [P. tikbalangi]), a greater number of dorsal white spot rows (15 vs. 9–13 [P. leucospilos], 9–12 [P. manananggalae, P. tikbalangi]), and the absence of precloacal scale dark pigmentation (vs. absence or presence [P. leucospilos, P. tikbalangi], presence [P. manananggalae]). Parvoscincus duwendorum further differs from P. leucospilos and P. manananggalae by having fewer paravertebral scale rows (60 vs. 61–67 [P. leucospilos], 61–69 [P. manananggalae]); from P. manananggalae and P. tikbalangi by having infralabials eight (vs. six or seven [P. manananggalae], seven [P. tikbalangi]); from P. leucospilos by having head pigmentation moderately mottled (vs. heavily mottled), and the presence of dark pigmentation on the upper arm surface (vs. absence); from P. manananggalae by having fewer longitudinal ventral scale rows (41 vs. 43–49), and the absence (vs. presence) of subcaudal dark pigmentation; from P. leucospilos and P. tikbalangi by having prefrontals separated (vs. in medial contact [P. leucospilos], separated or in medial contact [P. tikbalangi]); and from P. tikbalangi by having prefrontals and first supraoculars in contact (vs. separated). (Siler et al. 2014). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a plaural derivation of the Filipino folklore term “Duwende,” which is chosen here to celebrate the country’s rich tradition of mythological forest animals and spirits. Duwendes are believed to be little fairy-like forest creatures, such as goblins, pixies, and elves, and believed to live in trees, termite mounds, and burrows in hillsides. The may bring bad or good fortune to humans and are often considered to be mischievous in nature. 
References
  • SILER, CAMERON D.; CHARLES W. LINKEM, KERRY COBB, JESSA L. WATTERS, SEAN T. CUMMINGS, ARVIN C. DIESMOS & RAFE M. BROWN 2014. Taxonomic revision of the semi-aquatic skink Parvoscincus leucospilos (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae), with description of three new species. Zootaxa 3847 (3): 388–412 - get paper here
 
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