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Phalotris bilineatus (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymElapomorphus bilineatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 839
Elapomorphus bilineatus — JAN 1865
Elapomorphus bilineatus — STRAUCH 1884: 563
Elapomorphus lemniscatus BOULENGER 1885 (part.)
Elapomorphus spegazzinii BOULENGER 1913: 49
Elapomorphus suspectus AMARAL 1924: 202
Elapomorphus bilineatus — AMARAL 1929 (part.)
Elapomorphus bilineatus — AMARAL 1929: 202 (part.)
Elapomorphus bollei MERTENS 1954: 183
Elapomorphus bilineatus reticulatus — LEMA 1970 (part.)
Elapomorphus bilineatus suspectus — LEMA 1978
Elapomorphus bilineatus spegazzinii — LEMA 1978
Elapomorphus lemniscatus spegazzinii — LEMA 1979
Elapomorphus lemniscatus suspectus — LEMA 1979
Elapomorphus bilineatus — FREIBERG 1982
Elapomorphus (Phalotris) spegazzinii suspectus — LEMA 1984
Elapomorphus (Phalotris) spegazzinii spegazzinii — LEMA 1984
Elapomorphus spegazzinii spegazzinii — WILLIAMS & FRANCINI 1991
Elapomorphus spegazzinii suspectus — WILLIAMS & FRANCINI 1991
Elapomorphus (Phalotris) spegazzinii suspectus — CEI 1993
Elapomorphus (Phalotris) spegazzinii spegazzinii — CEI 1993
Phalotris bilineatus — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 27
Phalotris spegazzinii — DE LEMA 2002
Phalotris suspectus — DE LEMA 2002
Phalotris bilineatus — GIRAUDO & SCROCCHI 2002
Phalotris bilineatus — SCROCCHI et al. 2006: 115
Phalotris bilineatus — WALLACH et al. 2014 
DistributionS Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina (Chubut, Rio Negro [HR 32: 64])

Type locality: Corrientes, Argentina

spegazzinii: S Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan, San Luis, La Pampa); Type locality: La Plata.

bollei: Argentina (Buenos Aires)  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MNHN (dry, dehydrated skin)
Holotype: MSNG 30651 (Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova) [spegazzinii]
Holotype: USNM [suspectus] 
Diagnosis 
CommentSynonymy: partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 and CEI 1993. Elapomorphus spegazzinii and other species have been considered subspecies or synonyms of Phalotris (Elapomorphus) bilineatus (see e.g. PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970). De LEMA (1979) synonymizes Elapomorphus bilineatus with E. lemniscatus. CARREIRA et al. (2005) also list Phalotris bilineatus as synonym of Phalotris lemniscatus. Elapomorphus reticulatus PETERS 1860: 518 has been removed from the synonymy of E. bilineatus (by FERRAREZZI 1993). “Phalotris bilineatus" is a name based on a hybrid specimen between Phalotris suspectus x Phalotris spegazzinii (de Lema, 1984). GIRAUDO & SCROCCHI 2002 and more recently WALLACH et al. 2014: 535 list this species (incl. suspectus) as synonym of Ph. bilineatus. LEMA 2002 considered them as valid. COSTA & BERNILS 2015 consider bilineatus as a synonym of P. lemniscats (following Lema 1979).

Distribution: Not in Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014). 
Etymology 
References
  • Amaral,A. do 1924. New genus and species of South American snakes contained in the United States National Museum. J. Washington Acad. Sci. 14: 200-202
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Remarks on the variation of Elapomorphus lemniscatus. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 15: 321-323 - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1913. Descriptions of a new lizard and a new snake from South America. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova (3) 6: 49-50 - get paper here
  • Carreira Vidal, Santiago 2002. Alimentación de los ofidios de Uruguay. Asoc. Herp. Esp., Monograf. Herp. 6, 127 pp. - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Ferrarezzi H. 1993. Nota sobre o genero Phalotris com revisao do grupo nasutus e descricao de tres novas especies (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 55 (SUPPL. 1): 21-38. - get paper here
  • Freiberg, M.A. 1982. Snakes of South America. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 189 pp.
  • Giraudo, A. R., and G. J. Scrocchi 2002. Argentinian Snakes: An Annotated Checklist. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (132): 1-53 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 14. Livraison. [Elapomorphus d’Orbignyi, Coronella getulus var. Sayi]. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Lema, T. de 1982. Fauna de serpentes da província pampeana e inter- relações com as províncias limítrofes. Mem. Inst. Butantan 46: 173-182 - get paper here
  • Lema, Th. de 1970. Sobre o status de Elapomorphus bilineatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril, 1854, curiosa serpente subterranea. Iheringia, Ser. Zool. (38): 89-118 - get paper here
  • Lema, Th. de 1978. O status de Elapomorphus suspectus Amaral 1924. (Ophidia: Colubridae). Comunicações do Museu de Ciências DA PUCRGS No. 16/17: 1-16
  • Lema, Th. de 1979. Sobre a validade dos nomes Elapomorphus bilineatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril, 1854 e E. lemniscatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril, 1854 (Ophidia: Colubridae). Iheringia, Ser. Zool. (54): 77-81 - get paper here
  • Lema, Th. de 1984. Sobre o genero Elapomorphus Wiegmann, 1843 (Serpentes, Colubridae, Elapomorphinae). Iheringia, Ser. Zool. 64: 53-86 - get paper here
  • Lema, Th. de 1991. Anomalias na escamacao de duas especies de Elapomorphus da America do Sul meridional (Serpentes: Colubridae: Elapomorphindae). Acta Biologica Leopoldensia 12 (2): 339-358 [1990]
  • Leynaud, Gerardo C. and Enrique H. Bucher 1999. La fauna de serpientes del Chaco Sudamericano: diversidad, distribución geografica y estado de conservación. Academia Nacional de Ciencias Miscelanea (98):1-46
  • Mertens, R. 1954. Neue Eidechsen aus Südwest—Afrika. Senckenbergiana, 34:175—183
  • Minoli I, Morando M, Avila LJ 2015. Reptiles of Chubut province, Argentina: richness, diversity, conservation status and geographic distribution maps. ZooKeys 498: 103-126. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.498.7476 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1860. Drei neue Schlangen des k. zoologischen Museums aus America und Bemerkungen über die generelle Unterscheidung von anderen bereits bekannten Arten. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1860 (October): 517-521 - get paper here
  • Puorto G. Ferrarezzi H. 1993. Uma nova especie de Phalotris Cope, 1862, com comentarios sobre o grupo Bilineatus (Serpentes: Colubridae: Xenodontinae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 55 (SUPPL. 1): 39-46. - get paper here
  • Scrocchi, G.J.; Moreta, J.C. & Kretzschmar, S. 2006. Serpientes del Noroeste Argento [Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca, La Rioja, Santiago del Estero]. Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, 178 pp.
  • Scrocchi, Gustavo J.; Cristian S. Abdala,Javier Nori, Hussam Zaher 2010. Reptiles de la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina Fondo Ed. Rionegrino, 249 pp.
  • Strauch,A. 1884. Bemerkungen über die Schlangengattung Elapomorphus aus der Familie der Calamariden. 2nd. Ed. Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg 29: 541-590 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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