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Phalotris lemniscatus (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854)

IUCN Red List - Phalotris lemniscatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesPhalotris lemniscatus lemniscatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854
Phalotris lemniscatus iheringi (STRAUCH 1884)
Phalotris lemniscatus trilineatus (BOULENGER 1889) 
Common NamesDumeril's Diadem Snake 
SynonymElapomorphus lemniscatus lemniscatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 840
Elapomorphus lemniscatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854
Phalotris lemniscatus — COPE 1862
Elapomorphus lemniscatus — STRAUCH 1884: 567
Phalotris melanopleurus COPE 1885: 189 (part.)
Elapomorphus lemniscatus — AMARAL 1929 (part.)
Elapomorphus bilineatus lemniscatus — LEMA 1970
Elapomorphus bilineatus lemniscatus — LEMA 1979
Elapomorphus (Phalotris) lemniscatus lemniscatus — LEMA 1984
Elapomorphus (Phalotris) lemniscatus divittatus LEMA 1984
Elapomorphus lemniscatus lemniscatus — WILLIAMS & FRANCINI 1991
Elapomorphus (Phalotris) lemniscatus lemniscatus — CEI 1993
Phalotris lemniscatus divittatus — DE LEMA 1994
Phalotris divittatus — DE LEMA 2002
Phalotris lemniscatus — DE LEMA 2002
Phalotris lemniscatus — GRACA SALOMAO et al. 2003
Phalotris lemniscatus — JANSEN & KÖHLER 2008
Phalotris lemniscatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 547

Phalotris lemniscatus iheringi (STRAUCH 1884)
Elapomorphus iheringi STRAUCH 1884: 571
Phalotris melanopleurus COPE 1885 (part.)
Elapomorphus lemniscatus — BOULENGER 1896 (part.)
Elapomorphus bilineatus reticulatus — LEMA 1970
Elapomorphus (Phalotris) lemniscatus iheringi — LEMA 1984
Elapomorphus lemniscatus iheringi — WILLIAMS & FRANCINI 1991
Elapomorphus (Phalotris) lemniscatus iheringi — CEI 1993
Phalotris lemniscatus iheringi — DE LEMA 1994
Phalotris iheringi — DE LEMA 2002

Phalotris lemniscatus trilineatus (BOULENGER 1889)
Elapomorphus trilineatus BOULENGER 1889: 265
Phalotris lemniscatus trilineatus
Phalotris trilineatus — DE LEMA 2002
Phalotris trilineatus — DE LEMA 2011 
DistributionBolivia, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Argentina (Corrientes, Misiones), Uruguay, Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014)

Type locality: South America.  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 3668; BMNH 1946.1.2.90 is listed as type in the BMNH online catalog
Syntypes: ANSP 11213-14; Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul; [melanopleurus]
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.2.90, collected by H. von Ihering [trilineatus]
Holotype: MCN 3784 [divittatus]
Holotype: ZISP ? [iheringi] 

Synonymy partly after that of CEI 1993. Elapomorphus lemniscatus has been synonymized with E. bilineatus by PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. All subspecies of E. lemniscatus have been elevated to species status by DE LEMA who also considers them as members of Phalotris. Wallach et al. 2014 list Elapomorphus trilineatus as a synonym of Phalotris lemniscatus. Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002 list Phalotris lemniscatus divittatus as synonym of Phalotris reticulatus, without further comment; Carreira 2005 and Wallach et al. 2014 list it as synonym of P. lemniscatus.

Subspecies: the status of Phalotris lemniscatus iheringi (STRAUCH 1884) remains questionable (C. Nogueira, pers. comm. 30 Sep 2016). 
  • Abegg, Arthur Diesel; Omar Machado Entiauspe-Neto, Thales de Lema 2015. First record of albinism in the Elapomorphini tribe (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) Herpetology Notes 8: 503-505 - get paper here
  • Bérnils, R.S.; Batista, M.A. & Bertelli, P.W. 2001. Cobras e lagartos do Vale: levantamento das espécies de Squamata (Reptilia, Lepidosauria) da Bacia do Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev. Est. Ambientais (Blumenau) 3 (1): 69-79
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Remarks on the variation of Elapomorphus lemniscatus. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 15: 321-323 - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1889. Description of a new snake and two new fishes obtained by Dr. H. von Ihering in Brazil. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 4: 265-267 - get paper here
  • Cabral, Hugo and Pier Cacciali 2015. A New Species of Phalotris (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from the Paraguayan Chaco. Herpetologica Mar 2015, Vol. 71, No. 1: 72-77. - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Carreira, S.; Brazeiro, A.; Camargo, A.; da Rosa, I.; Canavero, A. & Maneyro, M. 2012. DIVERSITY OF REPTILES OF URUGUAY: KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION GAPS. Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 9-29 - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • Cope, E.D. 1885. Twelfth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 22: 167-194 [1884] - get paper here
  • de Lema, Thales. 2011. Phalotris trilineatus (littoral blackhead) ophiophagy. Herpetological Review 42 (3): 368 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Entiauspe-Neto, Omar Machado; Tângela Denise Perleberg and Marco Antonio de Freitas 2016. Herpetofauna from an urban Pampa fragment in southern Brazil: composition, structure and conservation Check List 12(5): 1964 - get paper here
  • Esteves, Geiza Pontes 2011. Filogenia das serpentes do grupo de Phalotris lemniscatus (Serpentes, Colubridae) baseada em marcadores moleculares. BS thesis, UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL INSTITUTO DE BIOCIÊNCIAS - get paper here
  • Ferrarezzi H. 1993. Nota sobre o genero Phalotris com revisao do grupo nasutus e descricao de tres novas especies (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 55 (SUPPL. 1): 21-38. - get paper here
  • Graca Salomão, M. da et al. 2003. Colubrid snakebite: a public health problem in Brazil. Herpetological Review 34 (4): 307-312 - get paper here
  • Jansen, M; Kohler, G 2008. A new species of Phalotris from the eastern lowlands of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 103-110
  • Kolb, P; Mmoser, C F; Oliveira, R B & Tozetti, A M; 2018. Phalotris lemniscatus (Dumeril’s Diadem Snake) Predation Herpetological Review 49 (4): 761 - get paper here
  • Lema, Th. de 1979. Sobre a validade dos nomes Elapomorphus bilineatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril, 1854 e E. lemniscatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril, 1854 (Ophidia: Colubridae). Iheringia, Ser. Zool. (54): 77-81 - get paper here
  • Lema, Th. de 1984. Sobre o genero Elapomorphus Wiegmann, 1843 (Serpentes, Colubridae, Elapomorphinae). Iheringia, Ser. Zool. 64: 53-86 - get paper here
  • Lema, Th. de 1991. Anomalias na escamacao de duas especies de Elapomorphus da America do Sul meridional (Serpentes: Colubridae: Elapomorphindae). Acta Biologica Leopoldensia 12 (2): 339-358 [1990]
  • Lema, Th. de 1994. Lista comentada dos répteis occorentes nor Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Comun. Mus. Cienc. Tecnol. PUCRS, Sér. Zool., Porto Alegre 7: 41-150
  • Outeiral, Arlete B.; Rafael L. Balestrin, Lize H. Cappellari, Thales de Lema, Vanda Lúcia Ferreira 2018. Snake assemblage from Serra do Sudeste, Pampa Biome in Southern Brazil Herpetology Notes 11: 733-745 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1860. Drei neue Schlangen des k. zoologischen Museums aus America und Bemerkungen über die generelle Unterscheidung von anderen bereits bekannten Arten. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1860 (October): 517-521 - get paper here
  • Prigioni, C.; C. Borteiro; F. Kolenc. 2011. Amphibia and Reptilia, Quebrada de los Cuervos, Departamento de Treinta y Tres, Uruguay. Check List 7 (6): 763-767 - get paper here
  • Schaefer, E.F. 1998. Phalotris lemniscatus. Argentina: Corrientes. Herpetological Review 29 (3): 178 - get paper here
  • Strauch,A. 1884. Bemerkungen über die Schlangengattung Elapomorphus aus der Familie der Calamariden. 2nd. Ed. Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg 29: 541-590 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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