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Phalotris tricolor (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854)

IUCN Red List - Phalotris tricolor - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesTricolored Burrowing Snake 
SynonymElapomorphus tricolor DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 837
Phalotris tricolor — COPE 1862: 524
Elapomorphus tricolor — JAN 1865
Elapomorphus tricolor — STRAUCH 1884: 565
Elapomorphus tricolor — ABALOS et al. 1964
Elapomorphus punctatus DE LEMA 1979
Elapomorphus tricolor — FREIBERG 1982
Phalotris punctatus FERRAREZZI 1993
Elapomorphus (Phalotris) tricolor — CEI 1993
Phalotris punctatus — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 27
Phalotris tricolor — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 28
Phalotris tricolor — DE LEMA 2002
Phalotris punctatus — DE LEMA 2002
Phalotris punctatus — GIRAUDO & SCROCCHI 2003: 30
Phalotris punctatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 536
Phalotris tricolor — WALLACH et al. 2014: 537 
DistributionS/W Brazil (Paraná [HR 27: 216 as Phalotris tricolor]), Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina (Santiago del Estero)

Type locality: "Santa-Cruz," [Bolivia]. Restricted to Santa Cruz de la Sierra à Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz, Bolivia by Vanzolini, 1948: 383.

punctatus: Argentina (Misiones, Córdoba); Type locality: Rosario de la Frontera, Salta, Argentina.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntype: MNHN RA 0520, a 938 mm skin (A. d'Orbigny, 1826-1833). Other syntype location unknown (I. Ineich, pers. comm., 29 Aug 2017).
Holotype: MLPA = MLP 151, male [punctatus] 
Diagnosis 
CommentType species: Elapomorphus tricolor is the type species of the genus Phalotris COPE 1862.

The genus Phalotris is distinguished from other Elapomorphini genera (Apostolepis Cope, 1862, Coronelaps Lema, 2010, and Elapomorphus Wiegman, 1843) by having fused prefrontals, which are separated from internasals (Moura et al. 2013).

Synonymy: Lema 2005 synonymized Elapomorphus punctatus with Elapomorphus tricolor and assigned all Brazilian records of P. tricolor. Records from eastern Paraguay, accepted as P. tricolor by Lema et al. (2005), are now considered as P. mattogrossensis (Cacciali and Motte 2007).

Distribution: This species has been recorded from Uruguay inn the past but according to CARREIRA et al. (2005) there are no reliable records from that country. Argentinian reports of this species were actually Phalotris punctatus, a very similar species. 
Etymology 
References
  • Abalos, J.W., Baez, E.C., & Nader, R. 1964. Serpientes de Santiago del Estero. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 20: 211-283.
  • Cabral, Hugo and Pier Cacciali 2015. A New Species of Phalotris (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from the Paraguayan Chaco. Herpetologica Mar 2015, Vol. 71, No. 1: 72-77. - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • Cope, E.D. 1862. On Elapomorphus, Sympholis, and Coniophanes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13 [1861]: 524 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Ferrarezzi H. 1993. Nota sobre o genero Phalotris com revisao do grupo nasutus e descricao de tres novas especies (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 55 (SUPPL. 1): 21-38. - get paper here
  • Freiberg, M.A. 1982. Snakes of South America. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 189 pp.
  • Giraudo, A. R., and G. J. Scrocchi 2002. Argentinian Snakes: An Annotated Checklist. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (132): 1-53 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 14. Livraison. [Elapomorphus d’Orbignyi, Coronella getulus var. Sayi]. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Jansen, M; Kohler, G 2008. A new species of Phalotris from the eastern lowlands of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 103-110
  • Kacoliris F.P.; Berkunsky I. & Williams J. 2006. Herpetofauna of Impenetrable, Argentinean Great Chaco. Phyllomedusa 5 (2): 149-158 - get paper here
  • Lema, T. de, D’Agostini, F.M. & Cappelari, L.H. 2005. Nova espécie de Phalotris, redescricåo de P. tricolor e osteologia craniana (Serpentes, Elapomorphinae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 95: 65-78 - get paper here
  • Lema, Th. de 1979. Elapomorphus punctatus, nova especie de Colubridae para a Argentina (Ophidia). REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE BIOLOGIA 39 (4): 835-853
  • Leynaud, Gerardo C. and Enrique H. Bucher 1999. La fauna de serpientes del Chaco Sudamericano: diversidad, distribución geografica y estado de conservación. Academia Nacional de Ciencias Miscelanea (98):1-46
  • Leynaud, Gerardo C.; Mario R. Cabrera and Paola Carrasco 2005. A survey of the southernmost representatives of the tricolor species group, genus Phalotris (Serpentes, Colubridae). Phyllomedusa 4 (2): 103-110 - get paper here
  • Pesci, Giuliano; Sanchez, José Manuel; Muniz Leão, Suelem; Pelegrin, Nicolás 2018. Reptiles y anfibios de una localidad del Chaco Húmedo en Formosa, Argentina. Cuad. herpetol. 32 (1): 47-54 - get paper here
  • Scrocchi, G.J.; Moreta, J.C. & Kretzschmar, S. 2006. Serpientes del Noroeste Argento [Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca, La Rioja, Santiago del Estero]. Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, 178 pp.
  • Strauch,A. 1884. Bemerkungen über die Schlangengattung Elapomorphus aus der Familie der Calamariden. 2nd. Ed. Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg 29: 541-590 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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