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Philodryas psammophidea GÜNTHER, 1872

IUCN Red List - Philodryas psammophidea - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Günther's Green Racer
Portuguese: Corre-Campo 
SynonymPhilodryas psammophideus GÜNTHER 1872: 23
Dirrhox lativittatus COPE 1887: 58
Philodryas bolivianus BOULENGER 1896: 132
Philodryas psammophideus — BOULENGER 1896 (3): 132
Philodryas Borellii PERACCA 1897
Liophis trifasciatus WERNER 1899: 114
Liophis bolivianus WERNER 1909: 222
Philodryas lineatus WERNER 1909
Philodryas werneri MÜLLER 1925
Philodryas pallidus WERNER 1926
Chlorosoma psammophideum — SERIÉ 1936
Philodryas psammophideus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 244
Dirrhox lattivittatus — MALNATE 1971: 368 (in error)
Philodryas psammophideus — FREIBERG 1982: 150
Philodryas psammophideus psammophideus — CEI 1993
Philodryas bolivianus — CEI 1993
Philodryas psammophideus — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 31
Philodryas psammophidea — BERNILS et al. 2007
Philodryas psammophidea — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Philodryas psammophidea — WALLACH et al. 2014: 552
Philodryas psammmophidea — RIVAS et al. 2018 (in error)
Philodryas psammophidea — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019
Philodryas psammophidea — MELO-SAMPAIO et al. 2020 
DistributionWC Brazil, E Bolivia, Paraguay,
Argentina (Rio Negro, Neuquén, Mendoza, San Juan, La Rioja, Catamarca, Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Chaco, Formosa, Santiago del Estero, Córdoba, Santa Fe, San Luis, La Pampa, Corrientes, Chubut)

Type locality: Tucumán, Argentina

boliviana: Bolivia; Type locality: Charobamba, Bolivia

werneri: Type locality: “Sierra de Curumalan, Ost-Argentinien” [Buenos Aires prov., Argentina]  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.2.79, a 686 mm female.
Type: MSNTO R226, R550 (P. borellii)
Holotype: ZSM 43/1974 (originally ZMB 16860), juvenile [werneri] 
DiagnosisOriginal description: “Habit slender; head narrow eye of moderate size, with round pupil. Rostral shield as high as broad, reaching to the upper surface of the snout anterior frontals two thirds the size of posterior. Vertical narrow, much longer than the snout, and as long as the occipitals. Loreal region not grooved; loreal shield longer than deep; anteocular extendIng on the upper surface of the head, but not reaching the vertical. Two postoculars. Eight upper labials, of which the third, fourth, and fifth enter the orbit. Temporals 1 + 2 + 2. Scales smooth, in nineteen rows, without pores. Ventrals 201; anal divided; subcaudals 92. Posterior maxillary tooth longest, grooved; anterior mandibulary teeth longer than the succeeding. The coloration of this snake resembles that of a Psammophis or Ragerrhis. The ground-colour is a reddish olive; a darker band, three scales broad, runs from the occipitals along the vertebral line, and is bordered on each side by a series of black specks. A brown band through the eye to the side of the neck, where it becomes indistinct and is continued in the form of two or three darker lines. Lower parts yellow, with a series of black dots along each side of the abdomen. Upper labials yellow, the sixth with a black spot. One specimen from Tucuman; it is 27 inches long, tail 7 inches.” (Günther 1872: 23) 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 and CEI 1993 (but see note for P. borelli), partly following AMARAL 1926. Philodryas bolivianus was considered a s synonym of Philodryas psammophideus by PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970, but not by CEI 1993.

Distribution: This species has been recorded from Uruguay in the past but according to CARREIRA et al. (2005) there are no reliable records from that country. See map in Nogueira et al. 2019. 
  • Abalos, J.W., Baez, E.C., & Nader, R. 1964. Serpientes de Santiago del Estero. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 20: 211-283
  • Amaral,A. do 1926. Notas de ophiologia. I. Sobre a invalidez de um genero e algumas especies de ophidios Sul-Americanos. Rev. Mus. Paulista 14: 17-33
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • Cope, E.D. 1887. Synopsis of the Batrachia and Reptilia obtained by H. H. Smith in the Province of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 44-60 - get paper here
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38 - get paper here
  • Freiberg, M.A. 1982. Snakes of South America. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 189 pp. - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1872. Seventh account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 9: 13-37 - get paper here
  • Hohmeister, A. 1999. Bemerkungen zur Biologie und Pflege südamerikanischer Strauchnattern der Gattung Philodryas Wagler, 1830 im Terrarium. Sauria 21 (2): 9-21 - get paper here
  • Kacoliris F.P.; Berkunsky I. & Williams J. 2006. Herpetofauna of Impenetrable, Argentinean Great Chaco. Phyllomedusa 5 (2): 149-158 - get paper here
  • Leynaud, Gerardo C. and Enrique H. Bucher 1999. La fauna de serpientes del Chaco Sudamericano: diversidad, distribución geografica y estado de conservación. Academia Nacional de Ciencias Miscelanea (98):1-46
  • Malnate, Edmond V. 1971. A catalogue of primary types in the Herpetological Collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (ANSP). Proccedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 123 (9): 345-375 - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • Melo-Sampaio, P. R., Passos, P., Martins, A. R., Moura-leite, J. C., Morato, S. A., Venegas, P. J., Chávez G., Venâncio N.M. & De Souza, M. B. 2020. A phantom on the trees: integrative taxonomy supports a reappraisal of rear-fanged snakes classification (Dipsadidae: Philodryadini). Zoologischer Anzeiger 290: 19-39 [dated 2021 in print version, but 2020 published online] - get paper here
  • Minoli I, Morando M, Avila LJ 2015. Reptiles of Chubut province, Argentina: richness, diversity, conservation status and geographic distribution maps. ZooKeys 498: 103-126. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.498.7476 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Pereyra, Laura Cecilia and Mauricio Sebastián Akmentins. 2013. A case of predation of Chacophrys pierottii (Anura: Ceratophryidae) by Philodryas psammophidea (Squamata: Dipsadinae) in the chacoan saltflats of central Argentina. Herpetology Notes 6: 245-246.
  • Quinteros-Muñoz, Oliver; Peñaranda, Diego A.; Navarro, Freddy 2010. Rodent consumption by Philodryas psammophidea (Serpentes: Colubridae), from the inter-andean dry valleys of central Bolivia. Cuadernos de Herpetología 24 (2) - get paper here
  • Ramalho, Werther Pereira; Jefferson Rocha Silva, Philip Teles Soares, Denes Ferraz, Filipe Viegas Arruda, Vitor Hugo Mendonça do Prado 2018. The anurans and squamates of a peri-urban Cerrado remnant in the State of Goiás, Central Brazil. Herpetology Notes 11: 573-583 - get paper here
  • Rivas, Luis Rolando; Mendoza-Miranda, Patricia; Muñoz-Saravia, Arturo 2018. Lista preliminar de la herpetofauna del Parque Nacional Torotoro, Potosí, Bolivia . Pp. 6. Cuad. herpetol. 32 (1): 41-46 - get paper here
  • Scrocchi, G.J.; Moreta, J.C. & Kretzschmar, S. 2006. Serpientes del Noroeste Argento [Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca, La Rioja, Santiago del Estero]. Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, 178 pp.
  • Scrocchi, Gustavo J.; Cristian S. Abdala,Javier Nori, Hussam Zaher 2010. Reptiles de la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina. Fondo Ed. Rionegrino, 249 pp.
  • SOSA, RONALD; LORENZO BRAGA 2013. PHILODRYAS PSAMMOPHIDEA (Günther’s green racer) DIET. Herpetological Bulletin (124) - get paper here
  • Thomas, R. A. 1976. A revision of the South American colubrid snake genus Philodryas Wagler, 1830. PhD Thesis, Texas A & M Univ.: 378 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1899. Beschreibungen einiger neuer Schlangen und Batrachier. Zool. Anz. 22: 114-117 - get paper here
  • Werner, FRANZ 1901. Reptilien und Batrachier aus Peru und Bolivien. Abhandl. Ber. Zool. Anthrop. Mus. Dresden, 9 (2): 1-14 [1900] - get paper here
  • Williams,J.D. & Francini,F. 1991. A checklist of the Argentine snakes. Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 9 (1): 55-90
  • Zaher, H.; Scrocchi, G. & Masiero, R. 2008. Rediscovery and redescription of the type of Philodryas laticeps Werner, 1900 and the taxonomic status of P. oligolepis Gomes, 1921 (Serpentes, Colubridae). Zootaxa 1940: 25–40 - get paper here
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