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Philothamnus heterodermus (HALLOWELL, 1857)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesEmerald Green Snake, Variable Green Snake 
SynonymChlorophis heterodermus HALLOWELL 1857: 54
Ahaetulla heteroderma — GÜNTHER 1863: 285
Herpetaethiops Bellii — GÜNTHER 1866: 27 (fide LOVERIDGE 1958: 64)
Philothamnus heterodonta — SAUVAGE 1884: 201 (in error)
Chlorophis heterodermus — BOULENGER 1894: 97
Chlorophis heterodermus — GÜNTHER 1895: 528
Chlorophis heterodermus — STERNFELD 1917
Chlorophis cyaneus HECHT 1929
Chlorophis heterodermus — LOVERIDGE 1936
Chlorophis heterodermis [sic] — TAYLOR & WEYER 1958
Philothamnus heterodermus — RÖDEL et al. 1999
Philothamnus heterodermus — BÖHME et al. 2011: 59
Philothamnus belli — TRAPE & BALDÉ 2014
Philothamnus heterodermus — TRAPE & BALDÉ 2014
Philothamnus heterodermus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 555
Philothamnus heterodermus — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 488 
DistributionAngola, Zaire, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire; except in the south), Congo (Brazzaville), Cameroon, Nigeria, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Benin, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea (Conakry), Guinea-Bissau, Uganda, Kenya, Equatorial Guinea, Rwanda, Burundi, Central African Republic, Tanzania.

Type locality: Gabon.
Type locality: Aioshöhe am Nyong, Kamerun [Chlorophis cyaneneus]

belli: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia; Type locality: Sierra Leone.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesType: BMNH 1946.1.10.27 (and possibly additional specimens).
Holotype: ZMB 30694; Aioshöhe am Nyong, Kamerun [Cameroon]. leg.Reichenau, (= Reichenow) S[ammler] G[eber] (= collector and donator) [Chlorophis cyaneus] 
CommentSubspecies: Philothamnus heterodermus carinatus and Philothamnus heterodermus ruandae are now considered as full species. However, the validity of the two subspecies is unclear (RÖDEL & MAHSBERG 2000). 
References
  • Böhme, Wolfgang, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Christian Brede & Philipp Wagner 2011. The reptiles (Testudines, Squamata, Crocodylia) of the forested southeast of the Republic Guinea (Guinée forestière), with a country-wide checklist. Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 35-61 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Broadley, D. G. & HOWELL, K. M. 1991. A check list of the reptiles of Tanzania, with synoptic keys. Syntarsus 1: 1—70
  • Broadley, D.G. 1998. The reptilian fauna of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa). In: Schmidt, K.P. and Noble, G.K., Contributions to the Herpetology of the Belgian Congo... [reprint of the 1919 and 1923 papers]. SSAR Facsimile reprints in Herpetology, 780 pp.
  • Carlino, P. & Pauwels, O.S.G. 2015. An Updated Reptile List of Ivindo National Park, the Herpetofaunal Hotspot of Gabon. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 50(3): 25-39 - get paper here
  • Ceríaco, Luis M. P., Aaron M. Bauer, David C. Blackburn and Ana C. F. C. Lavres. 2014. The herpetofauna of the Capanda Dam Region, Malanje, Angola. Herpetological Review 45 (4): 667-674
  • Chifundera, K. 1990. Snakes of Zaire and their bites. Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Günther, A. 1895. Notice of Reptiles and Batrachians collected in the eastern half of tropical Africa. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 15: 523-529. - get paper here
  • Hallowell,E. 1857. Notes of a collection of reptiles from the Gaboon country, West Africa, recently presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, by Dr. Herny A. Ford. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 9: 48-72 - get paper here
  • Hecht, G. 1929. Zur Kenntnis der Schlangengattung Chlorophis Hallow. Zool. Anz. 81(11/12): 329-335
  • Hughes, B. 2013. Snakes of Bénin, West Africa. Bull. Soc. Herp. France 144: 101-159
  • Jesus, J.; Nagy, Z.; Branch, W.; Wink, M.; Brehm, A. & Harris, D. J. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships of African green snakes (genera Philothamnus and Hapsidophrys) from São Tomé, Príncipe and Annobon islands based on mtDNA sequences and comments on their colonization and taxonomy. The Herpetological Journal 19: 41-48 - get paper here
  • Leaché, Adam D.; Mark-Oliver Rödel, Charles W. Linkem, Raul E. Diaz, Annika Hillers, and Matthew K. Fujita 2006. Biodiversity in a forest island: reptiles and amphibians of the Togo Hills, Kyabobo National Park, Ghana. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 4 (1): 22-45 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1951. Synopsis of the African Green Snakes (Philothamnus inc. Chlorophis) with the description of a new form. Bull. Inst. Roy. Sci. Nat. Belgique 27: 1-12
  • Loveridge,A. 1958. Revision of five african snake genera. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 119: 1-198 (141) - get paper here
  • Marques, Mariana P.; Luis M. P. Ceríaco , David C. Blackburn , and Aaron M. Bauer 2018. Diversity and Distribution of the Amphibians and Terrestrial Reptiles of Angola -- Atlas of Historical and Bibliographic Records (1840–2017). Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 4) 65: 1-501 (Supplement II)
  • Menzies, J.I. 1966. The snakes of Sierra Leone. Copeia 1966 (2): 169-179. - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O. S. G. B. Le Garff, I. Ineich, P. Carlino, I. Melcore, L. Boundenga, C. Vigna, T. Stévart, K. Jeffery, C. Orbell, J.-B. Squarcini, J. P. Vande weghe and L. J. T. White 2016. Miscellanea Herpetologica Gabonica V & VI Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 51: 177 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G. & Vande weghe, J.P. 2008. Les reptiles du Gabon. Smithsonian Institution, Washington: 272 pp. - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; Kamdem Toham, A. & Chimsunchart, C. 2002. Recherches sur l’herpétofaune du Massif du Chaillu, Gabon. Bull. Inst. Roy. Sci. Nat. Belgique (Biologie) 72: 47-57 - get paper here
  • Rödel M O; Mahsberg D 2000. Vorläufige Liste der Schlangen des Tai-Nationalparks/Elfenbeinküste und angrenzender Gebiete. Salamandra 36 (1): 25-38 - get paper here
  • Rödel,M.O.; Kouadio,K, & Mahsberg,D. 1999. Die Schlangenfauna des Comoé-Nationalparks, Elfenbeinküste: Ergänzungen und Ausblick. Salamandra 35 (3): 165-180 - get paper here
  • Segniagbeto GLazcano. H., Trape J. F., David P., Ohler A., Dubois A. & Glitho I. A. 2011. The snake fauna of Togo: systematics, distribution and biogeography, with remarks on selected taxonomic problems. Zoosystema 33 (3): 325-360. DOI: 10.5252/z2011n3a4 - get paper here
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
  • Sternfeld,R. 1917. Reptilia und Amphibia. In: Schubotz, H. (Hrsg.): Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition, 1910-1911 unter Führung Adolph Friedrichs, Herzog zu Mecklenburg. Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann, [Band] 1, Zoologie, Lieferung 11; S. 407-510. - get paper here
  • Taylor, Edward H.;Weyer, Dora 1958. Report on a collection of amphibians and reptiles from Harbel, Republic of Liberia. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 38 (14): 1191-1229 - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995. Les serpents du Congo: liste commentée et clé de détermination. Journal of African Zoology 109 (1): 31-50
  • TRAPE, JEAN-FRANÇOIS & CELLOU BALDÉ 2014. A checklist of the snake fauna of Guinea, with taxonomic changes in the genera Philothamnus and Dipsadoboa (Colubridae) and a comparison with the snake fauna of some other West African countries. Zootaxa 3900 (3): 301–338
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1897. Über Reptilien und Batrachier aus Togoland, Kamerun und Tunis aus dem Kgl. Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges., Wien 47: 395-407
  • Werner, F. 1899. Ueber Reptilien und Batrachier aus Togoland, Kamerun und Deutsch-Neu-Guinea grösstentheils aus dem k. Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 49: 132-157 - get paper here
  • Witte, G. F. de 1933. Reptiles récoltés au Conge Belge par le Dr. H. Schouteden et par M. G.-F. Witte. Ann. Mus. Conge belge Zool. Ser. 1 Tome III: 53-100.
 
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