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Philothamnus irregularis (LEACH, 1819)

IUCN Red List - Philothamnus irregularis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Northern Green Bush Snake, Irregular Green Snake
G: Grüne Sumpfschlange 
SynonymColuber caeruleus LACÉPÈDE (not LINNAEUS) 1789
Coluber azureus BONNATERRE 1790 (nom. oblitum)
Coluber caesius CLOQUET 1818
Coluber irregularis LEACH 1819: 494
Dendrophis chenoni REINHARDT 1843
Leptophis Chenonii — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 545
Leptophis Chenoni — BOCAGE 1866: 48
Philothamnus irregularis var. longifrenatus BUCHHOLZ & PETERS 1875: 199
Philothamnus irregularis — FISCHER 1881: 229
Ahaetulla irregularis — SCLATER 1891: 36
Chlorophis irregularis — BOULENGER 1894: 96
Chlorophis irregularis — BOULENGER 1897: 278
Chlorophis irregularis — STERNFELD 1917
Chlorophis irregularis — PARKER 1932: 219
Coluber vernayi FITZSIMONS 1932 (fide BOGERT 1940)
Philothamnus irregularis — LOVERIDGE 1955
Philothamnus irregularis irregularis — PITMAN 1974
Philothamnus irregularis — RÖDEL et al. 1999
Philothamnus irregularis — BÖHME et al. 2011: 59
Philothamnus irregularis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 556 
DistributionS Sudan, Ethiopia, Chad, Niger, Mali, Senegal, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, Mozambique, Republic of South Africa (Natal), Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana ?, Namibia, Zaire, Gambia (HÅKANSSON 1981), Ivory Coast (Rödel et al. 1999), Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Burkina Faso, Togo, Benin, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Angola

Type locality: Ashanti, Gold Coast. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesTypes: BMNH 1965.641 (and possibly additional specimens).
Types: ZMUC [Dendrophis chenoni] 
CommentSynonymy: partly after LOVERIDGE 1958: 85. Meirte (2013) proposed to conserve the name Philothamnus irregularis; Coluber irregularis Leach is a junior primary homonym of Coluber irregularis Bechstein, 1802 = Boiga irregularis. ICZN Opinion 328 already suppressed the senior synonym Coluber caesius Cloquet, 1818.

Distribution: Not listed as such by BROADLEY & POYNTON 1998 for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire). Not listed for Botswana by AUERBACH 1987. Philothamnus irrgularis battersbyi has been elevated to species status. 
References
  • Barnett, Linda K. 2001. The herpetofauna of Abuko Nature Reserve, the Gambia. Herpetological Bulletin (77): 5-1 - get paper here
  • Barnett, Linda K. & Emms, Craig 2005. Common reptiles of The Gambia. Rare Repro, Hailsham, East Sussex, 24 pp.
  • Bocage,J.V. du B. 1866. Lista dos reptis das possessões portuguezas d'Africa occidental que existem no Museu Lisboa. Jorn. Sci. Math. Phys. Nat. Lisboa 1: 37-56
  • Böhme, Wolfgang, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Christian Brede & Philipp Wagner 2011. The reptiles (Testudines, Squamata, Crocodylia) of the forested southeast of the Republic Guinea (Guinée forestière), with a country-wide checklist. Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 35-61 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1897. A list of reptiles and batrachians from the Congo Free State, with the description of two new snakes. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 19: 276-281 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1957. Snakes of Southem Rhodesia. 2. The Northern Green Snake, Philothamnus irregularis irregularis (Leach). Afr. Wild Life 11: 53-55.
  • Broadley, D.G. 1959. The herpetology of Southern Rhodesia. Part I--the snakes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 120 (1): 1-100 [reprint 1972] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1962. On some reptile collections from the North-Western and North-Eastern Districts of Southern Rhodesia 1958-1961, with descriptions of four new lizards. Occ. Pap. Nat. Mus. South. Rhodesia 26 (B): 787-843
  • Chirio, L. 2009. Inventaire des reptiles de la région de la Réserve de Biosphère Transfrontalière du W (Niger/Bénin/Burkina Faso: Afrique de l’Ouest). [Herpetological survey of the W Transfrontier Biosphere Reserve area (Niger/Benin/Burkina Faso: West Africa]. Bull. Soc. Herp. France (132): 13-41 - get paper here
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Conradie W, Bills R, and Branch WR. 2016. The herpetofauna of the Cubango, Cuito, and lower Cuando river catchments of south-eastern Angola. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 10(2) [Special Section]: 6–36 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1881. Herpetologische Bemerkungen vorzugsweise über Stücke des Naturhistorischen Museums in Bremen. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Bremen, 7: 225-238 [Nov. 1881]
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  • Hughes, B. 1985. Progress on a taxonomic revision of African green tree snakes (Philothamnus spp.). In: Schuchmann, K.L. (ed.) Proceedings of the International Symposium on African Vertebrates. ZFMK, Bonn, pp. 511-530
  • Hughes, B. 2013. Snakes of Bénin, West Africa. Bull. Soc. Herp. France 144: 101-159
  • Leach 1819. in: Bowdich, T.E., Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, with a statistical account of that kingdom, geographical notices of other parts of the interior of Africa. London, john Murray, pp. 493-496
  • Loveridge, A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1956. On snakes collected in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan by J.S. Owen, Esq. Sudan Notes Rec. 36: 37-56 [1955]
  • Loveridge, Arthur 1929. East African reptiles and amphibians in the United States National Museum. Bull. US Natl. Mus. (151): 1-135 - get paper here
  • Loveridge,A. 1958. Revision of five african snake genera. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 119: 1-198 (141) - get paper here
  • Meirte, D. 2013. Case 3599 Coluber irregularis Leach in Bowdich, 1819 (currently Philothamnus irregularis; Reptilia, Squamata): proposed conservation. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 70 (2): 89-98 - get paper here
  • Menzies, J.I. 1966. The snakes of Sierra Leone. Copeia 1966 (2): 169-179. - get paper here
  • Monard, ALBERT 1931. Mission scientifique Suisse dans l'Angola. Résultats scientifiques. Reptiles. Bull. Soc. Neuchâtel Sci. Nat., vol. 33, pp. 89-111. [1930] - get paper here
  • Parker,H.W. 1932. Scientific results of the Cambridge expedition to the east African lakes, 1930-31. 5. Reptiles and amphibians. Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 38: 213-229
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1875. Über die Hrn. Professor Dr. R. Buchholz in Westafrika gesammelten Amphibien. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1875 (März): 196-212 - get paper here
  • Pitman,C.R.S. 1974. A guide to the snakes of Uganda. Codicote, Wheldon & Wesley, L., 290 pp.
  • Rasmussen, J.B. & B. Hughes 1996. Description of some new snake species. I. [English translation of the original Danish text of T. Reinhardt 1843]. Steenstrupia 22: 13-39
  • Rasmussen,J.B. 1981. The snakes from the rainforest of the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania: a checklist and key. Salamandra 17 (3-4): 173-188 - get paper here
  • Raxworthy,C.J. & Attuquayefio,D.K. 2000. Herpetofaunal communities at Muni Lagoon in Ghana. Biodiversity and Conservation 9: 501-510
  • Reinhardt, J. T. 1843. Beskrivelse af nogle nye Slangearter. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Afhandl. 10: 233-279. - get paper here
  • Rödel,M.O.; Kouadio,K, & Mahsberg,D. 1999. Die Schlangenfauna des Comoé-Nationalparks, Elfenbeinküste: Ergänzungen und Ausblick. Salamandra 35 (3): 165-180 - get paper here
  • Sclater, W. L. 1891. List of snakes in the Indian Museum. Trustees of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 79 pp.
  • Segniagbeto GLazcano. H., Trape J. F., David P., Ohler A., Dubois A. & Glitho I. A. 2011. The snake fauna of Togo: systematics, distribution and biogeography, with remarks on selected taxonomic problems. Zoosystema 33 (3): 325-360. DOI: 10.5252/z2011n3a4 - get paper here
  • Sternfeld,R. 1917. Reptilia und Amphibia. In: Schubotz, H. (Hrsg.): Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition, 1910-1911 unter Führung Adolph Friedrichs, Herzog zu Mecklenburg. Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann, [Band] 1, Zoologie, Lieferung 11; S. 407-510. - get paper here
  • Trape J-F and Mané Y. 2015. The snakes of Niger. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 9(2) [Special Section]: 39–55 (e110) - get paper here
  • Trape, J.-F. & Mané, Y. 2004. Les serpents des environs de Bandafassi (Sénégal oriental). Bull. Soc. Herp. France 109: 5-34 - get paper here
  • Trape, J.-F. & Mané, Y. 2006. Guide des serpents d’Afrique occidentale. Savane et désert. [Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger]. IRD Editions, Paris, 226 pp. - get paper here
  • TRAPE, JEAN-FRANÇOIS & CELLOU BALDÉ 2014. A checklist of the snake fauna of Guinea, with taxonomic changes in the genera Philothamnus and Dipsadoboa (Colubridae) and a comparison with the snake fauna of some other West African countries. Zootaxa 3900 (3): 301–338
  • Trape, Jean-François; Mané, Youssouph 2000. Les serpents des environs de Dielmo (Sine-Saloum, Sénégal). Bull. Soc. Herp. France 95: 19-35 - get paper here
  • Ullenbruch, K.; Grell, O.; Böhme, W. 2010. Reptiles from southern Benin, West Africa, with the description of a new Hemidactylus (Gekkonidae), and a country-wide checklist. Bonn Zool. Bull. 57 (1): 31-54 - get paper here
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  • Werner, F. 1899. Ueber Reptilien und Batrachier aus Togoland, Kamerun und Deutsch-Neu-Guinea grösstentheils aus dem k. Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 49: 132-157 - get paper here
  • Witte, G. F. de 1933. Reptiles récoltés au Conge Belge par le Dr. H. Schouteden et par M. G.-F. Witte. Ann. Mus. Conge belge Zool. Ser. 1 Tome III: 53-100.
 
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