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Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus (COPE, 1868)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesPholidoscelis chrysolaemus chrysolaemus (COPE 1868)
Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus abbotti (NOBLE 1923)
Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus alacris (SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966)
Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus boekeri (MERTENS 1939)
Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus defensor (SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966)
Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus evulsa (SCHWARTZ 1973)
Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus ficta (SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966)
Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus jacta (SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966)
Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus parvoris (SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966)
Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus procax (SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966)
Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus quadrijugis (SCHWARTZ 1968)
Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus regularis (FISCHER 1888)
Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus richardthomasi (SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966)
Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus secessa (SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966)
Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus woodi (COCHRAN 1934) 
Common NamesCommon Ameiva 
SynonymAmeiva chrysolaema COPE 1868:127
Cnemidophorus affinis FISCHER 1883: 1
Ameiva chrysolaema — BOULENGER 1885: 355
Ameiva chrysolaema — FISCHER 1888: 24
Ameiva chrysolaema leberi SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966: 459
Ameiva chrysolaema umbratilis SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966
Ameiva leberi — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975: 59
Ameiva chrysolaema umbratilis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 62
Ameiva chrysolaema umbratilis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991
Ameiva leberi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 194
Ameiva chrysolaema — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 186
Ameiva leberi — POWELL et al. 1999
Ameiva chrysolaema — HARVEY et al. 2012
Pholidoscelis chrysolaema — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016
Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus — TUCKER et al. 2016
Ameiva umbratilis — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016

Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus abbotti NOBLE 1923
Ameiva abbotti NOBLE 1923: 1
Ameiva chrysolaema abbotti — BARBOUR 1937
Ameiva chrysolaema abbotti — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 60
Ameiva chrysolema [sic] abbotti — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 187
Pholidoscelis chrysolaema abbotti — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus alacris (SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966)
Ameiva chrysolaema alacris SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966: 440
Ameiva chrysolema [sic] alacris — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 187
Pholidoscelis chrysolaema alacris — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus boekeri MERTENS 1939
Ameiva chrysolaema boekeri MERTENS 1938: 338
Ameiva chrysolaema boekeri — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1946
Ameiva chrysolaema boekeri — SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966: 440
Pholidoscelis chrysolaema boekeri — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus defensor (SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966)
Ameiva chrysolaema defensor SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966
Ameiva chrysolaema defensor — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 61
Pholidoscelis chrysolaema defensor — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus ficta (SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966)
Ameiva chrysolaema ficta SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966
Ameiva chrysolaema ficta — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 61
Pholidoscelis chrysolaema ficta — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus jacta (SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966)
Ameiva chrysolaema jacta SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966
Ameiva chrysolaema jacta — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 61
Pholidoscelis chrysolaema jacta — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus parvoris (SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966)
Ameiva chrysolaema parvoris SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966
Ameiva chrysolaema parvoris — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 61
Pholidoscelis chrysolaema parvoris — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus procax (SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966)
Ameiva chrysolaema procax SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966
Ameiva chrysolaema procax — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 61
Pholidoscelis chrysolaema procax — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus quadrijugis (SCHWARTZ 1968)
Ameiva chrysolaema quadrijugis SCHWARTZ 1968
Ameiva chrysolaema quadrijugis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 62
Pholidoscelis chrysolaema quadrijugis — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus regularis (FISCHER 1888)
Ameiva regularis FISCHER 1888: 26
Ameiva chrysolaema regularis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 62
Pholidoscelis chrysolaema regularis — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus richardthomasi (SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966)
Ameiva chrysolaema richardthomasi SCHWARTZ & KLINIKOWSKI 1966
Ameiva chrysolaema richardthomasi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 62
Ameiva chrysolaema richardthomasi — POWELL & HENDERSON 2012

Pholidoscelis chrysolaemus woodi (COCHRAN 1934)
Ameiva chrysolaema woodi COCHRAN 1934: 181
Ameiva chrysolaema woodi — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1946
Pholidoscelis chrysolaema woodi — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication) 
DistributionHispaniola, Isla Beata, Isla Saona, Isla Catalina, Cayos Siete Hermanos, Isla Cabras, Ile de la Gonave, Ile de la Tortue, Ile a Cabrit, Grosse Caye

chrysolaema: Haiti, coast of Golfe de la Gonave from Diquini and Carrefour to Pont Sondé, and east through the Plaine de Cul de Sac to the Dominico-Haitian border; lIe à Cabrit. Type locality: "Ile de la Gonave"; restricted by Cochran, 1941, to within 25 mi. of Port-au-Prince, Département de l'Ouest, Haiti.

abbotti: Isla Beata. Type locality: Isla Beata, Republica Dominicana.

alacris: East-central Haiti through Valle de San Juan, República Dominicana; intergrades with A. ch. boekeri in Azua Province, and with A. ch. chrysolaema in vicinity of Mirebalais. Type locality: 10 km SE San Juan, San Juan Province, Republica Dominicana.

boekeri: República Dominicana, extreme eastern Valle de Neiba, east to north of Azua and to Bani, where A. ch. boekeri intergrades with A. ch. procax.Type locality: South of Fondo Negro, lower Rio Yaque del Sur, Barahona Province, Republica Dominicana.

defensor: Northwestern Haiti, south to Gros-Morne, Ennery, and Gonaïves; intergrades with A. ch. chrysolaema near Dessalines. Type locality: Môle St.-Nicholas, Département du Nord- Ouest, Haiti.

evulsa: Haiti, Grosse Caye; perhaps also at Aquin and Cap St-Georges. Type locality: Grosse Caye, Departement du Sud, Haiti.

ficta: República Dominicana, Peninsula de Barahona. Type locality: 13.1 mi. (20.8 km) SW Enriquillo, Pedernales Province, Republica Dominicana.

jacta: República Dominicana, extreme east (Cabo Engaño region). Type locality: Juanillo, La Altagracia Province, Republica Dominicana

leberi (invalid): Hispaniola (Haiti, Dominican Republic); Type locality: 5 km B Pedernales, Pedernales Province, República Dominicana.

parvoris: República Dominicana, southeastern coast; perhaps the subspecies on Isla Catalina. Type locality: 0.9 mi. (1.4 km) E Boca Chica, Distrito Nacional, Republica Dominicana.

procax: República Dominicana, south-central coast, into interior San Cristóbal Province. Type locality: Santo Domingo, 2.2 km SW Rio Ozama, Distrito Nacional, Republica Dominicana.

quadrijugis: Haiti, proximal portion of the Tiburon Peninsula; intergrades with A. ch. chrysolaema at Gressier. Type locality: 4 mi. (6.4 km) SE Leogane, Departement de l'Ouest, Haiti.

regularis: North-central Hispaniola, from Carosse in Haiti, east through Plaine du Nord, into Valle de Cibao in República Dominicana to Santiago; Cayos Siete Hermanos; Isla Cabras. Type locality: Sans Souci, Departement du Nord, Haiti.

richardthomasi: Isla Saona. Type locality: Environs of Mano Juan, Isla Saona, Republica Dominicana.

secessa: lie de la Gonave. Etroits, lIe de la Gonave, Haiti.

umbratilis: República Dominicana, Valle de Neiba. Barahona, Barahona Province, Republica Dominicana.

woodi: lle de la Tortue.Type locality: Ile de la Tortue, Haiti.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: USNM 12140, USNM 12142.
Holotype: MCZ 77236. [leberi]
Holotype: AMNH R24327 or 24317 [abbotti]
Holotype: MCZ 77232 [alacris]
Holotype: SMF 25033 [boekeri]
Holotype: MCZ 63379 [defensor]
Holotype: USNM 189236 [evulsa]
Holotype: MCZ 77237 [ficta]
Holotype: MCZ 75267 [jacta]
Holotype: MCZ 77234 [parvoris]
Holotype: MCZ 77233 [procax]
Holotype: MCZ 92046 [quadrijugis]
Holotype: lost, formerly in ZMH, now destroyed [regularis]
Holotype: MCZ 77235 [richardthomasi]
Holotype: MCZ 77238 [secessa]
Holotype: MCZ 77231 [umbratilis]
Holotype: MCZ 37583 [woodi] 
Diagnosis 
CommentIllustrations: Fischer, 1883 (as Cnemidophorus affinis); Klingel, 1929; Mertens, 1939; Cochran, 1941; Schwartz and Klinikowski, 1966.

Synonymy: Sequence analyses indicate that A. leberi of Hispaniola is a junior synonym of A. chrysolaema (HOWER & HEDGES 2003). A. leberi had its own NCBI taxID, 231593. Tucker et al. 2017 synonymized Pholidoscelis umbratilis with P. chrysolaemus. 
EtymologyEtymology not given by Cope, but probably named after Greek chryso (= “gold”) and laimos (= neck, throat) for the yellow throat (and belly).

alacris is named after the Latin for "lively", procax from the Latin for "bold", parvoris from the Latin parvum (small) and os, oris (mouth), a translation of Boca Chica, the type locality, jacta from the Latin for "thrown," an allusion to the far flung distribution of this subspecies., richardthomasi is named after the collector, Richard Thomas, leberi is named after the collector David C. Leber, ficta Prom the Latin for "invented, devised" in allusion to resemblances to abbotti, secessa from the Latin for "distant, removed", defensor for the Latin for "defender" in allusion to the English fort at Mole St. Nicholas which guarded the Windward Passage. 
References
  • Barbour, Thomas & Loveridge, Arthur 1946. First supplement to typical reptiles and amphibians. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 96 (2): 59-214. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Cochran, D. M. 1934. Herpetological collections made in Hispaniola by the Utowana Expedition. Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8: 163-188 - get paper here
  • Cochran, D.M. 1941. The herpetology of Hispaniola. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 177: vii + 398 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1868. An examination of the Reptilia and Batrachia obtained by the Orton Expedition to Equador and the Upper Amazon, with notes on other species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20: 96-140 - get paper here
  • Estes, Richard; Queiroz, Kevin de & Gauthier, Jacques 1988. Phylogenetic Relationships within Squamata. In: Estes, Richard & Pregill, Gregory (Hrsg.): Phylogenetic Relationships of the Lizard families: Essays Commemorating Charles L. Camp. - Stanford: Stanford University Press; pp. 119-281
  • Fischer, J. G. 1883. Beschreibungen neuer Reptilien. Jahresber. Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg 1882: 1-15
  • Fischer, J.G. 1888. Über eine Kollektion Reptilien und Amphibien von Hayti. Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 5: 23-45. - get paper here
  • Gifford, M. E. 2008. Divergent character clines across a recent secondary contact zone in a Hispaniolan lizard. Journal of Zoology 274: 292–300
  • Gifford, Matthew E. and Allan Larson 2008. In situ genetic differentiation in a Hispaniolan lizard (Ameiva chrysolaema): A multilocus perspective. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49: 277-291 - get paper here
  • Gifford, Matthew E.; Robert Powell, Allan Larson and Ronald L. Gutberlet, Jr. 2004. Population structure and history of a phenotypically variable teiid lizard (Ameiva chrysolaema) from Hispaniola: the influence of a geologically complex island. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32 (3): 735-748 - get paper here
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • Hower, Lindsey M., and S. Blair Hedges 2003. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of West Indian Teiid lizards of the genus Ameiva. Carib. J. Sci. 39 (3):298-306. - get paper here
  • Klingel,G.C. 1929. Lizard hunting in the Black Republic. Nat. Hist. 29(5):451-64.
  • Lettow-Vorbeck, N. von 2016. Tansanias Süden - Ein Paradies für Reptilien- und Wirbellosenfans. Reptilia 21 (122): 74-79 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1939. Herpetologische Ergebnisse einer Reise nach der Insel Hispaniola, Westindien. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 449: 1-84.
  • Noble, G. K. 1923. Four new lizards from Beata Island, Dominican Republic. American Museum Novitates 64:1-5. - get paper here
  • Schell, P. T., J. S. Parmerlee, Jr., and R. Powell. 1993. Ameiva chrysolaema. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (563) - get paper here
  • Schell, Paul T.; Powell, Robert; Parmerlee, John S., Jr.; Lathrop, Amy; Smith, Donald D. 1993. Notes on the natural history of Ameiva chrysolaema (Sauria: Teiidae) from Barahona, Dominican Republic. Copeia 1993 (3): 859-862 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1973. A new subspecies of Ameiva chrysolaema (Sauria, Teiidae) from Haiti. Herpetologica 29: 101-105 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, Albert 1968. Two new subspecies of Ameiva (Lacertilia, Teiidae) from Hispaniola. Herpetologica 24 (1): 21-28 - get paper here
  • Schwartz,A. & Klinikowski,R.F. 1966. The Ameiva (Lacertilia: Teiidae) of Hispaniola. II. Geographic variation in Ameiva chrysolaema Cope. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 133: 425-487 - get paper here
  • Sproston, Amy L ; Powell, Robert; Parmerlee, John S , Jr 1998. Ameiva leberi. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 670: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Sproston, Amy L.;Glor, Richard E.;Hartley, Laurel M.;Censky, Ellen J.;Powell, Robert;Parmerlee, John S., Jr. 1999. Niche differences among three sympatric species of Ameiva (Reptilia: Teiidae) on Hispaniola. Journal of Herpetology 33 (1): 131-136 - get paper here
  • Tucker, Derek B.; Guarino R. Colli, Lilian G. Giugliano, S. Blair Hedges, Catriona R. Hendry, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Alan R. Lemmon, Jack W. Sites Jr., R. Alexander Pyron 2016. Methodological congruence in phylogenomic analyses with morphological support for teiid lizards (Sauria: Teiidae) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 103: 75-84 - get paper here
  • Tucker, Derek B.; | Stephen Blair Hedges | Guarino R. Colli | Robert Alexander Pyron | Jack W. Sites Jr 2017. Genomic timetree and historical biogeography of Caribbean island ameiva lizards (Pholidoscelis: Teiidae) Ecology and Evolution 7:7080–7090.
 
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