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Pholidoscelis exsul (COPE, 1862)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesPholidoscelis exsul exsul (COPE 1862)
Pholidoscelis exsul alboguttatus (BOULENGER 1896)
Pholidoscelis exsul desechensis (HEATWOLE & TORRES 1967) 
Common NamesPuerto Rican Giant Groundlizard, Common Puerto Rican Ameiva 
SynonymAmeiva plei var. exsul COPE 1862: 66
Ameiva Riseii REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862 (fide BAUER & GÜNTHER 1994)
Ameiva riisei REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862 (Fide SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988)
Ameiva birdorum GRANT 1932: 160
Ameiva exsul — CAREY 1972
Ameiva exsul — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 191
Ameiva exsul — HOWER & HEDGES 2003
Ameiva exsul — HARVEY et al. 2012
Pholidoscelis exsul — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016

Pholidoscelis exsul alboguttatus (BOULENGER 1896)
Ameiva alboguttata BOULENGER 1896: 112
Ameiva exsul alboguttata — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975
Ameiva exsul alboguttata — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 192
Ameiva alboguttata — HARVEY et al. 2012
Ameiva alboguttata — POWELL & HENDERSON 2012: 137
Pholidoscelis exsul alboguttata — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)
Pholidoscelis alboguttatus — HEDGES et al. 2019

Pholidoscelis exsul desechensis (HEATWOLE & TORRES 1967)
Ameiva desechensis HEATWOLE & TORRES 1967
Ameiva exsul desechensis — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975
Ameiva exsul desechensis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 64
Ameiva exsul desechensis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 192
Ameiva desechensis — JOGLAR in HAILEY et al. 2011: 357
Pholidoscelis exsul desechensis — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)
Pholidoscelis desechensis — HEDGES et al. 2019 
DistributionPuerto Rico (including offshore islands), Vieques, Culebra, Virgin Islands (e.g. Anegada), Mona, Desecheo

exsul: above range except Isla Mona and Isla Desecheo. Type locality: Water Island, near St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands.

alboguttata: Isla Mona.

desechensis: Isla Desecheo.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: USNM 30696
Holotype BMNH 1946.8.30.35 [alboguttatus]
Holotype: UMMZ 73854 [birdorum]
Holotype MCZ 100041 [desechensis] 
Diagnosis 
CommentIllustrations: Stejneger, 1904; Schmidt, 1928; Heatwole and Torres, 1967; Rivero, 1978; MacLean, 1982; Grobman, 1983. 
Etymology 
References
  • Angeli, Nicole Frances, Kristina Chyn and Kaycee Faunce. 2015. Ameiva exsul (Puerto Rican ground lizard) reproduction. Herpetological Review 46 (2): 249-250 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1930. Some faunistic changes in the Lesser Antilles. Proc. New England Zool. Club 11: 73-85
  • Barbour,T. 1917. Notes on the herpetology of the Virgin Islands. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 30: 97-103. - get paper here
  • Bauer, A.M. and R. Günther 1994. An annotated type catalogue of the teiid and microteiid lizards in the Zoological Museum, Berlin (Reptilia: Squamata: Teiidae and Gymnophthalmidae). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 70:267-280
  • Boulenger, George A. 1896. Ueber einige Reptilien von der Insel Mona (Westindien). Jahrberichte und Abhandlungen aus dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Magdeburg 1894-1896: 112-114
  • Carey, W.M. 1972. The Herpetology of Anegada, British Virgin Islands. Carib. J. Sci. 12(1/2): 79-89.
  • Cooper Jr., W.E. 2005. Duration of movement as a lizard foraging movement variable. Herpetologica 61 (4): 363-372 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1862. Synopsis of the species of Holcosus and Ameiva, with diagnoses of new West Indian and South American Colubridae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14: 60-82. - get paper here
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • Grobman, A.B. 1983. The lizards of Virgin Gorda. Naturegraph Publ., Inc., Happy Camp, CA:5-23.
  • Heatwole, H., D.S. Sade & R. Hildreth 1963. Herpetogeography of Puerto Rico. I. Herpetofauna of Cayo Santiago and Cayo Batata. Carib. J. Sci. 3 (1): 1-5.
  • Heatwole, H.,and Torres, F. 1967. Distribution and geographic variation of the Ameivas of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Stud. Fauna Curaçao and Carib. Is. 24(92):63-1 11. - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Hower, Lindsey M., and S. Blair Hedges 2003. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of West Indian Teiid lizards of the genus Ameiva. Carib. J. Sci. 39 (3):298-306. - get paper here
  • Joglar, Rafael L.; Alberto O. Álvarez, T. Mitchell Aide, Diane Barber, Patricia A. Burrowes, Miguel A. García, Abimael León-Cardona, Ana V. Longo, Néstor Pérez-Buitrago, Alberto Puente, Neftalí Rios-López and Peter J. Tolson 2011. Conserving the Puerto Rican herpetofauna. In: Hailey et al., eds, Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas Volume 2: 339-358
  • MacLean, W.P. 1982. Reptiles and amphibians of the Virgin Islands. MacMillan Caribbean, London: vii + 54 pp.
  • Philibosian, R.; Yntema, J. A. 1976. Records and status of some reptiles and amphibians in the Virgin Islands. I. 1968-1975. Herpetologica 32 (1): 81-85 - get paper here
  • Philibosian, R.; Yntema, J. A. 1978. Records and status of some reptiles and amphibians in the Virgin Islands. II. 1975-1976. Herpetologica 34 (1): 47-51 - get paper here
  • Reinhardt, JOHANNES & CHRISTIAN FREDERIK LÜTKEN 1862. Bidrag tii det vestindiske Öriges og navnligen tii de dansk-vestindiske Oers Herpetologie. Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. For. Kjöbenhavn (10-18): 153-291 [1862] - get paper here
  • Rios-López, N. & Aide, T.M. 2007. Herpetofaunal dynomics during secondary succession. Herpetologica 63 (1): 35-50 - get paper here
  • Rivero, J.A. 1978. Los anfibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico. M. Pareja Montana, 16, Barcelona, Espafia: x + 152 + 148pp.
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1928. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Amphibians and land reptiles of Porto Rico, with a list of those reported from the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences 10 (1):160 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Stejneger, L. 1904. The herpetology of Porto Rico. Rept. United States Natl. Mus. 1902: 549-724.
  • Tucker, Derek B.; | Stephen Blair Hedges | Guarino R. Colli | Robert Alexander Pyron | Jack W. Sites Jr 2017. Genomic timetree and historical biogeography of Caribbean island ameiva lizards (Pholidoscelis: Teiidae) Ecology and Evolution 7:7080–7090.
  • Werning, H. 2012. Zwischen Anolis und Cycluren: Unterwegs auf Puerto Rico. Reptilia (Münster) 17 (95): 100-109 - get paper here
 
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