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Phrynocephalus interscapularis LICHTENSTEIN & MARTENS, 1856

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Agaminae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesPhrynocephalus interscapularis interscapularis LICHTENSTEIN 1856
Phrynocephalus interscapularis sogdianus CHERNOV 1948 
Common NamesE: Lichtenstein's Toadhead Agama
sogdianus: Tajikistan Toadhead Agama 
SynonymPhrynocephalus interscapularis LICHTENSTEIN & MARTENS 1856
Phrynocephalus interscapularis — BOULENGER 1885: 378
Phrynocephalus interscapularis — NIKOLSKY 1915: 180
Phrynocephalus interscapularis — TERENTJEW & TSCHERNOW 1949: 157
Phrynocephalus interscapularis — LEVITON 1959: 461
Phrynocephalus interscapularis — ANDERSON 1963: 475
Phrynocephalus interscapularis — WERMUTH 1967: 82
Phrynocephalus interscapularis — MACEY et al. 2000
Phrynocephalus (Phrynocephalus) interscapularis interscapularis — BARABANOV & ANANJEVA 2007
Phrynocephalus interscapularis — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Phrynocephalus (Microphrynocephalus) interscapularis — SOLOVYEVA et al. 2014

Phrynocephalus interscapularis sogdianus CHERNOV 1948
Phrynocephalus interscapularis sogdianus CHERNOV 1948: 135
Phrynocephalus interscapularis sogdianus CHERNOV 1959: 76
Phrynocephalus interscapularis sogdianus — WERMUTH 1967: 82
Phrynocephalus sogdianus — SOKOLOVSKY 1975: 12
Phrynocephalus sogdianus — BARTS & WILMS 2003
Phrynocephalus sogdianus — SZCZERBAK 2003
Phrynocephalus (Phrynocephalus) interscapularis sogdianus — BARABANOV & ANANJEVA 2007
Phrynocephalus sogdianus — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Phrynocephalus interscapularis sogdianus — MILTO & BARABANOV 2012: 161
Phrynocephalus (Microphrynocephalus) sogdianus — SOLOVYEVA et al. 2014 
DistributionTurkmenistan, S Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, NE Iran, NE Afghanistan

Type locality: “Bucharei” = Bukhara, Uzbekistan

sogdianus: S Uzbekistan, SW Tajikistan, N Afghanistan; Type locality: Pyandza (Pjantsch), Tadjikistan  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: ZMB 795, ZMB 54831 (was ZMB 795 part.), ZMB 55938--40 (was ZMB 796 part.), "Bucharei", leg. Eversmann; Lectotype: ZMB 796 (designated by Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007: 10)
Holotype: ZISP 16887 [sogdianus] 
Comment“P[hrynocephalus]. interscapularis” Fitzinger, 1826: 48. is a nomen nudum as FITZINGER did not provide a description.

Type: unknown (fide ANDERSON 1999, BARABANOV & ANANJEVA 2007)

Type species: Phrynocephalus interscapularis LICHTENSTEIN 1856 is the type species of the subgenus Microphrynocephalus SOLOVYEVA et al. 2014. 
References
  • Ananjeva, Natalia B.;Tuniyev, Boris S. 1992. Historical biogeography of the Phrynocephalus species of the USSR. Asiatic Herpetological Research 4: 76-98 - get paper here
  • Anderson, Steven C 1999. The lizards of Iran. Contributions to Herpetology Volume 15, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Saint Louis, Missouri: i-vii, 1-442 [review in Copeia 2000 (4): 1144] - get paper here
  • Anderson,S.C. 1963. Amphibians and Reptiles from Iran. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. Ser. 4, 31(16): 417-498 - get paper here
  • BARABANOV, A.V. & N.B. ANANJEVA 2007. Catalogue of the available scientific species-group names for lizards of the genus Phrynocephalus Kaup, 1825 (Reptilia, Sauria, Agamidae). Zootaxa 1399: 1-56 - get paper here
  • Barts, M. & Wilms, T. 2003. Die Agamen der Welt. Draco 4 (14): 4-23 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Chernov, S.A. 1948. Reptiles — Reptilia. In: Pavlovsky, E.N. & Vinogradova, B.S. (Eds.), The Animals of the USSR. Vol. 2. The desert zone [in Russian]. USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Leningrad, pp. 127–161
  • Clark, R. 1990. A report on herpetological observations in Afghanistan. British Herpetological Society Bulletin (33): 20-42
  • Dujsebayeva, T. N. (ed.) 2010. Short review of last changes in the checklist of amphibians and reptiles of Kazakhstan. [in Russian]. In: Dujsebayeva, T. N. (ed.) Herpetological Researches in Kazakhstan and adjacent countries, p. 37-52
  • Jin, Y-T., R.P. Brown 2013. Species history and divergence times of viviparous and oviparous Chinese toad-headed sand lizards (Phrynocephalus) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 68 (2):259–268 - get paper here
  • Leviton,A.E. 1959. Systematics and Zoogeography of Philippine Snakes. Unpublished PhD Thesis.
  • Lichtenstein, H., and E. von Martens. 1856. Nomenclator reptilium et amphibiorum Musei Zoologici Berolinensis. Namenverzeichniss der in der zoologischen Sammlung der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin aufgestellten Arten von Reptilien und Amphibien nach ihren Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen. Königliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin / Buchdruckerei der Königl. Akad. der Wiss., iv + 48 pp. - get paper here
  • Macey, J. R., J. A. Schulte II, A. Larson, N. B. Ananjeva, Y. Wang, R. Pethiyagoda, N. Rastegar-Pouyani, T. J. Papenfuss 2000. Evaluating trans-Tethys migration: an example using acrodont lizard phylogenetics. Systematic Biology 49 (2): 233-256 - get paper here
  • Martin T, Guillemin M, Nivet-Mazerolles V, Landsmann C, Dubos J, Eudeline R, and Stroud J. 2017. The herpetofauna of central Uzbekistan. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 11(1) [General Section]: 93–107 - get paper here
  • Milto, Konstantin D.; Andrei V. Barabanov 2012. A Catalogue of the Agamid and Chamaeleonid Types in the Collection of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. Russ. J. Herpetol. 19 (2): 155-170 - get paper here
  • Mishagina J.V. 1988. Trophic connections of sandy toad agama (Phrynocephalus interscapularis, Agamidae) in Eastern Kara Kum. Probl. osvoenya pustyn, 1988, No 2: 48-56 [in Russian]
  • Mishagina J.V. 2006. On trophic connections of sandy toad agama Phrynocephalus interscapularis (Agamidae) in autumn. Probl. osvoenya pustyn, 2006, No 1: 37-42 [in Russian]
  • Mishagina J.V. 2008. Ecological groups of preys in Eastern Kara Kum psammobiont lizards, Eremias (Lacertidae) and Phrynocephalus (Agamidae). The Problems of Herpetology (Proceedings of the 3rd Meeting of the Nikolsky Herpetological Society). Saint-Petersburg, 2008, pp. 298-307 [in Russian] - get paper here
  • Nikolsky, A. M. 1915. Faune de la Russie, Reptiles Vol. 1 Chelonia et Sauria(Reptiles of Russia and adjacent countries. Reptiles (Reptilia) Vol. 1) [in Russian]. Imper. Acad. Sci., Petrograd, 532 pp. [Translated from Russian by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations 1963]
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Smirina, Ella and Natalia Ananjeva 2017. On the longevity, growth and reproductive characteristics of Lichtenstein’s Toadhead Agama, Phrynocephalus interscapularis Lichtenstein, 1856 (Agamidae, Sauria). Amphibia-Reptilia 38 (1): 31-39 [published online in 2016] - get paper here
  • Solovyeva, E. N.; N. A. Poyarkov, E. A. Dunayev, R. A. Nazarov, V. S. Lebedev, and A. A. Bannikova 2014. Phylogenetic Relationships and Subgeneric Taxonomy of Toad-headed Agamas Phrynocephalus (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae) as Determined by Mitochondrial DNA Sequencing. Doklady Biological Sciences 455: 119–124. - get paper here
  • Szczerbak, N.N. 2003. Guide to the Reptiles of the Eastern Palearctic. Krieger, Malabar, FL, 260 pp. - get paper here
  • Terentjev, P.V. & Chernov, S.A. 1949. Opredelitel Presmykatushchikhsya i Zemnovodnykh. [Encyclopedia of reptiles and amphibians, 2nd ed., in Russian]. Moscow
  • Tschernow (CHERNOV) 1959. Reptiles. in: Fauna of the Tajik SSR, Vol. XVIII [in Russian]. Presmykajuschtsch, Stalinabad, 203 pp.
  • Ulmasov, Khayot; Olga Zatsepina, Vasilii Molodtsov, Michael Evgen’ev 1999. Natural body temperature and kinetics of heat-shock protein synthesis in the toad-headed agamid lizard Phrynocephalus interscapularis. Amphibia-Reptilia 20 (1): 1-9 - get paper here
 
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