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Phrynosoma asio COPE, 1864

IUCN Red List - Phrynosoma asio - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesE: Giant Horned Lizard
G: Riesenkrötenechse
S: Camaleón de Grandes Cuernos 
SynonymPhrynosoma asio COPE 1864: 178
Batrachosoma asio — DUMERIL & BOCOURT 1870: 241
Batrachosoma asio — BOCOURT 1874
Phrynosoma spinimentum PETERS 1874: 742
Phrynosoma asio — GENTRY 1885: 144
Phrynosoma asio — BOULENGER 1885: 244
Phrynosoma asio — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 102
Phrynosoma asio — LINER 1994
Phrynosoma asio — KÖHLER 2000: 83
Phrynosoma asio — PIANKA & VITT 2003: 79
Phrynosoma asio — MATA-SILVA et al. 2015 
DistributionSE Mexico (Oaxaca, Guerrero, Michoacán, Colima, Chiapas, Morelos, Jalisco), Guatemala

Type locality: Colima, Colima.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 32217 (fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950); USNM catalog says “probable syntype”. 
CommentLongevity: up to 12 or 13 years. 
  • Alvarez DEL TORO, M. 1982. Los Reptiles de Chiapas. 3rd ed. México: Tuxtla Gutiérrez, 248 pp.
  • Baur, B. 1979. Pflege und Zucht der Riesenkrötenechse, Phrynosoma asio (Reptilia: Sauria: Iguanidae). Salamandra 15 (1): 1-12 - get paper here
  • Baur, B.E. 1986. Longevity of horned lizards of the genus Phrynosoma. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 22 (3): 149-151 - get paper here
  • Bocourt, M. E. 1873. In: A. Duméril, M. F. Bocourt, and F. Mocquard, (1870-1909), Etudes sur les reptiles, p. i-xiv; In Recherches Zoologiques pour servir a l'Histoire de Ia Faune de l'Amérique Centrale et du Mexique. Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique Ce Imprimerie Impériale, Paris, Livr. 2-15, pp. 33-860. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Castro-Frankco, R. & Guadalupe Bustos Zagal, M. 2004. Additional records and range extensions of reptiles from Morelos, México. Herpetological Review 35 (2): 196-197 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1864. Contributions to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16: 166-181. - get paper here
  • Dost, W. 2005. Stichpunktartige Bemerkungen zu Pflege und zucht diverser Iguaniden. Iguana Rundschreiben 18 (1): 16-24
  • Duméril, M. A.; M. F. Bocourt, and F. Mocquard 1870. Etudes sur les reptiles, p. i-xiv, 1-1012. In: Recherches Zoologiques pour servir a l'Histoire de Ia Faune de l'Amérique Centrale et du Mexique. Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique Centrale, Recherches zoologiques. Imprimerie Imper., Paris (published in parts1870-1909) - get paper here
  • García, Ernesto Raya and Luis Fernando Martínez García. 2013. Herpetoculture notes: Phrynosoma asio (giant horned lizard) drinking behavior. Herpetological Review 44 (3): 453 - get paper here
  • García, Ernesto Raya. 2014. Phrynosoma asio (giant horned lizard) predation. Herpetological Review 45 (1): 131-132 - get paper here
  • Gentry, A.F. 1885. A review of the genus Phrynosoma. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (ser. 3) 37: 138-148 - get paper here
  • Haase, K. 2014. Haltung und Nachzucht der Riesenkrötenechse (Phrynosoma asio) im Terrarium. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (107): 30-33
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Lara-Reséndiz Rafael A., Arenas-Moreno Diego M., Beltrán-Sánchez Elizabeth, Gramajo Weendii, Verdugo-Molina Javier, Sherbrooke Wade C. et al. 2015. Selected body temperature of nine species of Mexican horned lizards (Phrynosoma). Rev. Mex. Biodiv. 86 (1): 275-278. - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR 2020. A conservation checklist of the herpetofauna of Morelos, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 941: 121-144 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • McCoy, C. J.;Flores-Villela, O. A. 1985. Amphibians and reptiles of the Seese and Mocino expedition: a lost chapter in Mexican herpetology. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 54 (5): 189-193
  • Meyers, J.J.; Herrel, A. & Nishikawa, K. 2006. Morphological correlates of ant eating in horned lizards (Phrynosoma). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89: 13–24 - get paper here
  • Montanucci, Richard R. 1987. A phylogenetic study of the horned lizards, genus Phrynosoma, based on skeletal and external morphology. Contributions in Science (390): 1-36 + 1 plate
  • Palacios-Aguilar, Ricardo & OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA 2018. An updated checklist of the herpetofauna from Guerrero, Mexico. Zootaxa 4422 (1): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Pareja, M. G., et al. 2017. Phrynosoma asio (Giant Horned Lizard) Natural longevity. Herpetological Review 48 (2): 439-440 - get paper here
  • Pareja, Marcos García, Elizabeth Beltrán-Sánchez and Wade C. Sherbrooke. 2016. Phrynosoma asio (Giant Horned Lizard) Natural longevity (age). Herpetological Review 47 (1): 138-139 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1874. Über neue Saurier (Spæriodactylus, Anolis, Phrynosoma, Tropidolepisma, Lygosoma, Ophioscincus) aus Centralamerica, Mexico und Australien. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1873 (November): 738-747 - get paper here
  • Pianka, E.R. & Vitt, L.J. 2003. Lizards - Windows to the Evolution of Diversity. University of California Press, Berkeley, 347 pp. [review in Copeia 2004: 955] - get paper here
  • Raya-García, Ernesto. 2014. Phrynosoma asio (giant horned lizard) captive diet. Herpetological Review 45 (4): 635 - get paper here
  • Raya-García, Ernesto. 2014. Phrynosoma asio (giant horned lizard) crepuscular and nocturnal activity. Herpetological Review 45 (2): 330 - get paper here
  • Recchio, Ian, Marlowe Roberton-Billet, Chris Rodriguez and Jim Haigwood. 2014. Captive husbandry and reproduction of Phrynosoma asio (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) at the Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens. Herpetological Review 45 (3): 450-454 - get paper here
  • Reeder,T.W. & Montanucci,R.R. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of the horned lizards (Phrynomomatidae: Phrynosoma): evidence from mitochondrial DNA and morphology. Copeia 2001 (2): 309-323 - get paper here
  • Reeve, Wayne L. 1952. Taxonomy and distribution of the horned lizard genus Phrynosoma. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 34 (14): 817-960 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P.;Shannon, Frederick A. 1947. Notes on amphibians and reptiles of Michoacan, Mexico. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Natural History 31 (9): 63-85
  • Sherbrooke, Wade C. 2003. Introduction to Horned Lizards of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley, 178 pp.
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1944. Additions to the list of Mexican amphibians and reptiles in the Carnegie Museum. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 30: 87-92
  • Werning, H. 2014. Krötenechsen – eine (sehr gute) Laune der Natur. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (107): 16-23
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