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Phrynosoma coronatum (BLAINVILLE, 1835)

IUCN Red List - Phrynosoma coronatum - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesPhrynosoma coronatum coronatum (BLAINVILLE 1835)
Phrynosoma coronatum frontale VAN DENBURGH 1894
Phrynosoma coronatum jamesi SCHMIDT 1922 
Common NamesE: Coast Horned Lizard
blainvillii: San Diego Horned Lizard
frontale: California Horned Lizard
G: Kronen-Krötenechse 
SynonymAgama (Phrynosoma) coronata BLAINVILLE 1835: 284
Phrynosoma coronatum — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 318
Batrachosoma coronatum — FITZINGER 1843: 79
Phrynosoma coronatum — GENTRY 1885: 143
Phrynosoma coronatum — BOULENGER 1885: 243
Phrynosoma coronatum — VAN DENBURGH 1922
Phrynosoma coronatum coronatum — LINDSDALE 1932
Phrynosoma coronatum coronatum — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 102
Phrynosoma coronatum — STEBBINS 1985: 139
Phrynosoma coronatum — LINER 1994
Phrynosoma coronatum — LINER 2007

Phrynosoma coronatum frontale VAN DENBURGH 1894
Phrynosoma frontalis VAN DENBURGH 1894: 296
Phrynosoma blainvillii frontale — VAN DENBURGH 1897: 95
Phrynosoma schmidti BARBOUR 1921: 113
Phrynosoma nelsoni SCHMIDT 1922: 666
Phrynosoma coronatum frontale — LINDSDALE 1932: 368
Phrynosoma coronatum frontale — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 102

Phrynosoma coronatum jamesi SCHMIDT 1922
Phrynosoma jamesi SCHMIDT 1922: 668
Phrynosoma coronatum jamesi — KLAUBER 1936: 13
Phrynosoma coronatum jamesi — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 102 
DistributionUSA (California), Mexico (Baja California), elevation 0-2348m

Type locality: “California”. Restricted to Cape San Lucas, Baja California by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

frontale: USA (California); Type locality: Bear Valley, San Benito County, Calif.

jamesi: Mexico (Baja California); Type locality: Shore of San Bartolome Bay, Baja California. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MNHN Paris
Holotype: USNM 64450 [jamesi]
Holotype: CAS-SUR (Stanford Univ Mus.) 93 (male) [frontale] 
CommentHybridization: Healthy P. coronatum and P. cornutum hybrids have been obtained by BAUR (1983).

Synonymy: mostly after SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

Subspecies: Brattstrom (1997) concluded that P. coronatum is a highly variable species and thus rejected subspecies. Phrynosoma coronatum blainvillii GRAY 1839 has been elevated to full species status. Grismer 2002 did not use the subspecific name “Phrynosoma coronatum schmidti” but rather referred to the “Schmidti pattern class of Phrynosoma coronatum”.

Synonymy: GRISMER & MELLINK (1994) placed P. cerroense in the synonymy of P. coronatum.

Group: Belongs to the Anota clade fide LEACHE & MCGUIRE 2006. 
References
  • Banta, Benjamin H. 1962. A notable range extension for the California horned lizard. Wasmann Journal of Biology 20 (1): 137-138 - get paper here
  • Barbour,T. 1921. A new Phrynosoma from Cerros Island. Proc. New England Zool. Club 7: 113-115 - get paper here
  • Baur, B. 1984. Krötenechsen-Bastarde (Phrynosoma) (Sauria: Iguanidae) Salamandra 20 (2-3): 70-87 - get paper here
  • Blainville, Henri Marie Ducrotay de 1835. Description de quelques espèces de reptiles de la Californie précédée de l’analyse d’un système général d’erpétologie et d’amphibiologie. Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4: 233-296 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Brattstrom, Bayard H. 1997. Status of the subspecies of the Coast Horned Lizard, Phrynosoma coronatus. Journal of Herpetology 31 (3): 434-436 - get paper here
  • Brattstrom, Bayard H. 2013. Distribution of the Coast Horned Lizard, Phrynosoma coronatum, in Southern California. Bulletin, Southern California Academy of Sciences 112(3):206-216; <br />doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3160/0038-3872-112.3.206 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Gentry, A.F. 1885. A review of the genus Phrynosoma. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (ser. 3) 37: 138-148 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1839. Reptiles. In: J. Richardson et al., The Zoology of Captain Beechey`s Voyage... H.G. Bohn, London, 180 pp. (+ plates) - get paper here
  • Grinnell, J. & CAMP, C.L. 1917. A distributional list of the amphibians and reptiles of California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 17: 127-208
  • Grismer, L. Lee;Mellink, Eric 1994. The addition of Sceloporus occidentalis to the herpetofauna of Isla de Cedros, Baja California, México and its historical and taxonomic implications. Journal of Herpetology 28 (1): 120-126 - get paper here
  • Jennings, M. R. 1988. Phrynosoma coronatum (Blainville): Coast horned lizard. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 428: 1-5. - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Leaché, Adam D. and Jimmy A. McGuire 2006. Phylogenetic relationships of horned lizards (Phrynosoma ) based on nuclear and mitochondrial data: Evidence for a misleading mitochondrial gene tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39 (3): 628-644 - get paper here
  • Leaché, Adam D;.Michelle S. Koo, Carol L. Spencer, Theodore J. Papenfuss, Robert N. Fisher, and Jimmy A. McGuire 2009. Quantifying ecological, morphological, and genetic variation to delimit species in the coast horned lizard species complex (Phrynosoma). PNAS 2009 106:12418-12423 - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Banta, Benjamin H. 1964. Midwinter reconnaissance of the herpetofauna of the Cape Region of Baja California, Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 30 (7): 127-156 - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Linsdale 1932. Amphibians and reptiles from lower California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 38 (6): 345-386
  • Meyers, J.J.; Herrel, A. & Nishikawa, K. 2006. Morphological correlates of ant eating in horned lizards (Phrynosoma). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89: 13–24 - get paper here
  • Montanucci, R.R. 2004. Geographic variation in Phrynosoma coronatum (Lacertilia, Phrynosomatidae): further evidence for a peninsular archipelago. Herpetologica 60 (1): 117-139 - get paper here
  • Reeder,T.W. & Montanucci,R.R. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of the horned lizards (Phrynomomatidae: Phrynosoma): evidence from mitochondrial DNA and morphology. Copeia 2001 (2): 309-323 - get paper here
  • Reeve, Wayne L. 1952. Taxonomy and distribution of the horned lizard genus Phrynosoma. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 34 (14): 817-960 - get paper here
  • Rochester, Carlton J.; Cheryl S. Brehme, Denise R. Clark, Drew C. Stokes, Stacie A. Hathaway, and Robert N. Fisher 2010. Reptile and Amphibian Responses to Large-Scale Wildfires in Southern California. Journal of Herpetology 44 (3): 333–351 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl Patterson 1922. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Lower California and the Neighboring Islands. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 46 (11): 607-707
  • Sherbrooke, Wade C. 2003. Introduction to Horned Lizards of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley, 178 pp.
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Terron 1932. Anal. Inst. Biol. 3: 109
  • Tevis, lloyd, Jr. 1944. Herpetological notes from lower California. Copeia 1944 (1): 6-18 - get paper here
  • Tinkham, E.R. 1951. On the recognition of two Lower California horned lizards. Herpetologica 7: 169-172 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh, John 1922. The Reptiles of Western North America. Volume I. Lizards and Volume II. Snakes and Turtles. Occ. Pap. Cal. Acad. Sci. (10): 1–612; 613-1028 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1894. Descriptions of three new lizards from California and ower California, with a note on Phrynonsoma blainvillii. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 2), 4: 296-301 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Van DENBURGH,J. 1897. The reptiles of the Pacific coast and Great Basin. An account of the species known to inhabit California, and Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Nevada. Occ. Pap. Cal. Acad. Sci. (5): 1-236 - get paper here
 
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