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Phrynosoma douglasii (BELL, 1829)

IUCN Red List - Phrynosoma douglasii - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesE: Pigmy Short-horned Lizard
G: Zwerg-Kurzhorn-Krötenechse
douglasii: Pigmy Short-horned Lizard 
SynonymAgama Douglassii BELL 1829: 105
Phrynosoma Douglassi — WAGLER 1830: 146
Tapaya Douglassi GIRARD 1858: 398
Phrynosoma ornatissima — COPE 1871: 305
Phrynosoma Douglassi subsp. ornatissima COPE 1878: 49
PhrjTiosoma douglassi pygmaea YARROW 1882: 443
Phrynosoma Douglassi — GENTRY 1885: 140
Phrynosoma douglassii — BOULENGER 1885: 240
Phrynosoma douglassii — STEBBINS 1985: 141
Phrynosoma douglassii — LINER 1994
Phrynosoma douglasii — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Phrynosoma (Tapaja) douglasii — CROTHER et al. 2012
Phrynosoma douglasii — MONTANUCCI 2015: 45 
DistributionCanada (S Alberta, S Sasketchewan, British Columbia [fide BOULENGER 1887]),
USA (Washington, Oregon, N California, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, W North Dakota, W South Dakota, W Nebraska, N California, N Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, W Texas),
Mexico (Chihuahua)

brachycercum: Mexico (Durango); Type locality: “Durango”;  
TypesHolotype: MCZ 5951; also given as MCZ 5952 or 5953 or BMNH 1946.8.10.52-53
Holotype: USNM 23993 [brachycercum]
Syntypes: USNM 9199, 10918, 11473 [Phrynosoma douglassi pygmaea] 
CommentSubspecies: The former subspecies Phrynosoma douglassii hernandesi (Girard, 1858) has been elevated to species status by Zamudio et al. 1997. The subspecies P. d. brevirostre, ornatissimum, and P. d. ornatum have been synonymized with P. hernandesi following Zamudio et al. 1997. Names and references partly after GENTRY 1885. Not listed for Mexico by Liner 2007.

Habitat: montane

Group: Belongs to the Tapaja clade fide LEACHE & MCGUIRE 2006.

Distribution: see maps in Montanucci 2015. Not in Sonora fide Lemos-Espinal et al. 2019. Not in Durango fide Lemos-Espinal (2018).

Publication date: some sources say 1828, but the cover page on the journal says 1829. 
EtymologyNamed after David Douglas (1799-1834), a botanist and traveler who collected in North America (1823-1834) and Hawaii (1834) for the Royal Horticultural Society, London. Agama Douglassii is the original spelling, and Bell repeatedly referred to “Mr. Douglass” although his correct name was “Douglas”. 
  • Bell, T. 1829. Description of a new species of Agama, brought from the Columbia River by Mr. Douglass. Trans. Linn. Soc. London 16: 105-107 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bergman, Enoch; Hill, Ben; Montgomery, Chad; Childers, Theresa; Manzer, Jerry D.; Sifert, James; Mackessy, Stephen P. 1998. Geographic Distribution. Phrynosoma douglasii. Herpetological Review 29 (2): 111 - get paper here
  • Blair C; Bryson R 2017. Cryptic diversity and discordance in single-locus species delimitation methods within horned lizards (Phrynosomatidae: Phrynosoma). Molecular Ecology Resources-6-17 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1887. On the affinity of the north-American lizard fauna. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 20: 345-346 - get paper here
  • Bradley, W. Glen and James E. Deacon 1966. Amphibian and Reptile Records for Southern Nevada. Southwestern Naturalist 11 (1): 132-134 - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. and T. W. Taggart 2009. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Sixth Edition. Center for North American Herpetology, 48 pp.
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cope, E.D. 1871. On a peculiar habit ... in the Phrynosomas. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1871: 305 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1875. Check-list of North American Batrachia and Reptilia with a systematic list of the higher groups, and an essay on geographical distribution based on specimens contained in the U.S. National Museum. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 1: 1-104 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Eaton, Theodore H., Jr 1935. Report on amphibians and reptiles of the Navajo country. Bulletin 3. Rainbow Bridge-Monument Valley Expedition : 1-20
  • Gentry, A.F. 1885. A review of the genus Phrynosoma. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (ser. 3) 37: 138-148 - get paper here
  • Girard, Charles F. 1858. United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, Under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Vol. 20. Herpetology. C. Sherman & Son, Philadelphia, xv, 492 pages [see note in Zhao and Adler 1993: 369] - get paper here
  • Guyer, Craig. 2006. Phrynosoma douglasii Copulatory position. Herpetological Review 37 (1): 91-92 - get paper here
  • Hammerson & Smith 1991. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 27: 121-127 - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Leaché, Adam D. and Jimmy A. McGuire 2006. Phylogenetic relationships of horned lizards (Phrynosoma ) based on nuclear and mitochondrial data: Evidence for a misleading mitochondrial gene tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39 (3): 628-644 - get paper here
  • Meyers, J.J.; Herrel, A. & Nishikawa, K. 2006. Morphological correlates of ant eating in horned lizards (Phrynosoma). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89: 13–24 - get paper here
  • MONTANUCCI, RICHARD R. 2015. A taxonomic revision of the Phrynosoma douglasii species complex (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae). Zootaxa 4015 (1): 001–177
  • Nussbaum, R.A., Brodie, E.D., Jr., & Storm, R.M. 1983. Amphibians and reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. Univ. Press of Idaho, Moscow 332 pp.
  • Sherbrooke, Wade C. 2003. Introduction to Horned Lizards of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley, 178 pp.
  • Siebenrock, Friedrich 1892. Ueber Wirbelassimilation bei den Sauriern. Annalen des Königlichen Kaiserlichen Naturhistorischen Hofmuseum in Wien 7: 373-378
  • Smith, Hobart 1942. Mexican herpetological miscellany. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 92 (3153): 349-395 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Thompson, Dorian 1993. Four reptiles newly recorded from Ouray County, Colorado. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 28 (4): 78-79 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Tanner, Vasco M. 1930. The amphibians and reptiles of Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah. Copeia 1930 (2): 41-43 - get paper here
  • Tanner, Vasco M.;Hayward, C. Lynn 1934. A biological study of the La Sal Mountains, Utah report No. 1 (Ecology). Proceedings of the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters 11: 209-235
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1954. Herpetological notes concerning some reptiles of Utah and Arizona. Herpetologica 10: 92-96 - get paper here
  • Van Devender, Thomas R.; Lowe, Charles H. Lowe, Jr. 1977. Amphibians and reptiles of Yepomera, Chihuahua, Mexico. Journal of Herpetology 11 (1): 41-50 - get paper here
  • Wagler, Jean G. 1830. Natürliches System der Amphibien, mit vorangehender Classification der Säugetiere und Vögel. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Zoologie. 1.0. Cotta, München, Stuttgart, and Tübingen, 354 pp.
  • Webb, R.G. 1984. Herpetogeography in the Mazatlán-Durango Region of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Vetrebrate Ecology and Systematics - A ribute to Henry S. Fitch; Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, pp. 217-241
  • Woodbury, Angus Munn 1928. The reptiles of Zion National Park. Copeia 1928 (166): 14-21 - get paper here
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