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Phrynosoma ornatissimum (GIRARD, 1858)

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesPhrynosoma ornatissimum ornatissimum GIRARD 1858
Phrynosoma ornatissimum brachycercum SMITH 1942 
Common NamesE: Desert Short-horned Lizard
G: Wüsten-Kurzhorn-Krötenechse
E: Short-tail Short-horned Lizard [brachycercum]
G: Kurzschwanz-Kurzhorn-Krötenechse [brachycercum] 
SynonymPhrynosoma (Tapaya) ornatissima GIRARD 1858: 396
Phrynosoma ornatissima — COPE 1871: 305
Phrynosoma Douglassi subsp. ornatissima COPE 1878: 49

Phrynosoma ornatissimum ornatissimum GIRARD 1858
Phrynosoma (Tapaya) hernandesi GIRARD 1858: 395 (part)
Phrynosoma (Tapaya) ornatissima GIRARD 1858: 396.
Phrynosoma douglassi — GENTRY 1885: 140 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii hernandesi — COPE 1900: 413 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatissimum — COPE 1900: 415
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatissimum VAN DENBURGH 1922: 377
Phrynosoma douglassii hernandesi — VAN DENBURGH 1922: 382 (part).
Phrynosoma douglassii hernandesi — SMITH 1946: 304 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatissimum — SMITH 1946: 305
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatissimum — REEVE 1952: 927
Phrynosoma hernandezi — ZAMUDIO et al. 1997: 302 (part)
Phrynosoma ornatissimum ornatissimum — MONTANUCCI 2015: 67
Phrynosoma hernandezi ornatissimum — DE QUEIROZ in CROTHER et al. 2017

Phrynosoma ornatissimum brachycercum SMITH 1942
Phrynosoma douglassii brachycercum SMITH 1942: 362
Phrynosoma douglassii brachycercum — REEVE 1952: 916
Phrynosoma douglassii hernandesi — REEVE 1952: 922 (part).
Phrynosoma douglassii brachycercum — WEBB 1984
Phrynosoma ornatissimum brachycercum — MONTANUCCI 2015: 75 
DistributionUSA (New Mexico, Texas), Mexico (Durango, Chihuahua, Zacatecas)

ornatissumum: USA (New Mexico, Texas); Type locality: restricted to the Rio Grande Valley at Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

brachycercum: Mexico (Durango, Chihuahua, Zacatecas); Type locality: “Durango” (restricted to Durango City, Durango, Mexico by REEVE 1952)  
TypesLectotype: USNM 204 (designated by Montanucci 2015: 68);Girard (1858a) described this species on the basis of specimens in the USNM, but he did not designate a type specimen.
Holotype: USNM 23993 [brachycercum] 
CommentSubspecies: The subspecies P. d. brevirostre, ornatissimum, and P. d. ornatum have been synonymized with P. hernandesi following Zamudio et al. 1997 but relvalidated by Montanucci 2015.

Habitat: montane

Group: Belongs to the Tapaja clade fide LEACHE & MCGUIRE 2006.

Distribution: see map and locality list in Montanucci 2015: 154, 
Etymologyornatissima: The Latin word ornatus –a – um, (participle of the verb orno), with the neuter superlative suffix, - issimum, meaning “the most highly adorned” or “...decorated” or “... embellished.”

brachycercum: The Greek word roots βραχύς = brachys an adjective meaning “short” and κέρκος = kerkos or cercus, a feminine noun meaning “tail”, in reference to the very short tail in this race. Smith (1942) modified brachycercus (used as a trinomial) to brachycercum as though it were an adjective needing to agree with the neuter gender of Phrynosoma. Although nouns used in apposition to other nouns retain their own gender (only adjectives must agree in gender with the name of the genus) such that Smith’s modification of the name was unnecessary, his use of the word as an adjective must be followed. See ICZN articles 31.2.1 and 34.2.1. 
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