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Phymaturus palluma (MOLINA, 1782)

IUCN Red List - Phymaturus palluma - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesHigh Mountain Lizard 
SynonymLacerta palluma MOLINA 1782: 345
Lacerta Palluma MOLINA 1788: 393
Centrura flagellifer BELL 1843: 25
Phymaturus palluma — GRAVENHORST 1838: 750
Phymaturus palluma — BOULENGER 1885: 184
Phymaturus palluma palluma — BURT & BURT 1931: 281
Uracentron palluma - BURT & BURT 1933 (in errore)
Phymaturus palluma — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 227
Phymaturus adrianae PEREYRA 1992 (nom. nud. fide LOBO & QUINTEROS 2005)
Phymaturus palluma — LOBO & QUINTEROS 2005
Phymaturus gynechlomus CORBALÁN, SCOLARO & DEBANDI 2009
Phymaturus flagellifer — SCOLARO & PINCHEIRA-DONOSO 2010 
DistributionChile (Coquimbo), Argentina (Catamarca, Patagonia)

Type locality: Central Chile (higher Cordillera of Chile fide GRAVENHORST 1838).

gynechlomus: Argentina (CW Mendoza); Type locality: in rocky slopes near Cruz de Piedra River, 2 km W of Alvarado Refuge of Laguna del Diamante Reserve, (2433 m elevation), San Carlos Department, Mendoza province, Argentina.  
Reproductionvivparous 
TypesNeotype: BMNH 1946.8.29.84 (the holotype of Centrura flagellifer Bell, 1843), designated by Etheridge and Savage (2003)
Holotype: CH-IADIZA 330, adult male, collected by G. Debandi and V. Corbalán, 04 January 2006. Paratypes: CH-IADIZA 331, adult female; CH-IADIZA 332, adult male; CH-IADIZA 333, adult female; MLP.R-5350, adult male; MLP.R.-5351, adult female. All specimens have the same collection data as the holotype [gynechlomus] 
CommentSubspecies: The former subspecies P. p. patagonicus has been elevated to species status by CEI 1971.

Synonymy partly after PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 227. Phymaturus gynechlomus CORBALÁN, SCOLARO & DEBANDI 2009 is a synonym of P. palluma fide Lobo et al. 2010, and TRONCOSO-PALACIOS & LOBO 2012.

Distribution: Scolaro (2010) claimed that Sierra de Uspallata should be considered the type locality of Phymaturus palluma, and that probably Darwin collected the specimen (today neotype’s species) in this area. Distribution: not listed by Ruiz de Gamboa 2016 for Chile.

Group: This species belongs to the palluma group (fide LOBO et al. 2010).

ETHERIDGE & SAVAGE (2003) suggested to conserve the widespread existing usage of the generic name Phymaturus Gravenhorst, 1837 and the specific name P. palluma (Molina, 1782) for a genus and a species of lizard (family LIOLAEMIDAE in their opinion) from South America by designating the holotype of Centrura flagellifer Bell, 1843 as the neotype of Lacerta palluma Molina, 1782. Phymaturus and P. palluma have been used in this sense since the name L. palluma was first misapplied by Gravenhorst in 1837. In their application it is accepted that Molina's lizard was actually Callopistes maculatus Gravenhorst, 1837.

The ICZN has ruled (ICZN 2005) that the current usage of the generic name Phymaturus Gravenhorst, 1837 and the specific name P. palluma (Molina, 1782) for a genus and a species of lizard (family LIOLAEMIDAE) from South America is conserved by designation of the holotype of Centrura flagellifer Bell, 1843 as the neotype of Lacerta palluma Molina, 1782.

Cei & Scolaro (2006) proposed the holotype of the iguanian synonym Centrura flagellifer (Bell, 1843) as neotype of Phymaturus palluma (Molina, 1782), the misidentified type species of Gravenhorst 1837. Such a neotype should be named Phymaturus flagellifer (Bell, 1843) in agreement to the real taxonomic position of the Molina’s species, a Teiid Callopistes, a lacertilian genus strikingly distant from the iguanid genus Phymaturus.

Type species: Lacerta palluma MOLINA 1782 is the type species of the genus Phymaturus GRAVENHORST 1838. The genus is characterized by robust lizards of stout, wide and flattened bodies that can squeeze into small rock crevices, thick tail with mucronate and spinose scales, lateral nuchal skin folds with fat-filled pouches, among other exclusive characters (Cei 1986; Etheridge 1995).

Diet: herbivorous

Diagnosis (gynechlomus). Phymaturus gynechlomus is a member of the flagellifer (= palluma) species group because it exhibits juxtaposed superciliary scales, which are small with a quadrangular shape; fragmented subocular scales; well developed caudal spines and more than two rows of lorilabial scales between supralabial and subocular scales. The dorsal colour pattern of males of P. gynechlomus as well as the unique dorsal colour observed in females, which lacks dark spots, differentiate these species from the remaining members of the flagellifer group. P. gynechlomus belongs to the palluma group (fide LOBO et al. 2010). 
EtymologyEtymology (gynechlomus): The species name derives from the peculiar dorsal coloration observed in females, in which the background is uniform and lacks any particular pattern of dark spots, as observed in other Phymaturus species. 
References
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238
  • Bell,T. 1843. The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, under the command of Captain Fitzroy, R.N. during the years 1832 to 1836. Edited and superintended by Charles Darwin ... naturalist to the expedition. Part 5. Reptiles. London, Smith, Elder and Co., (1842-1843), vi + 51 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt,C.E. & Burt,M.D. 1931. South American lizards in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History. Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist. 61 (7): 227-395
  • Cabezas Cartes, F., J.M. Boretto, J.C. Acosta, G. Jahn, G. Blanco, A. Laspiur, N.R. Ibargüengoytía. 2010. Reproductive biology of Phymaturus cf palluma: a vulnerable lizard from the highlands of the Andes, San Juan, Argentina. Herp. Cons. Biol. 5 (3):430–440 - get paper here
  • Castro-Pastene, Carlos; Héctor Carrasco & Jaime Troncoso-Palacios. 2015. Lagartijas y serpientes del Parque Nacional Radal Siete Tazas. Boletín Chileno de Herpetología 2: 12-16 - get paper here
  • Cei, J.M. 1986. Reptiles del centro, centro-oeste y sur de la Argentina; herpetofauna de las zonas aridas y semiaridas. Mus. Regionale di Sci. Natur., Torino, Monogr. 4: 527 pp.
  • Cei, J.M. & Videla, Y.F. 2002. Singulares hallazgos evolutivos y taxonómicos en géneros de iguánidos relevantes de la herpetofauna andina y de zonas limítrofes - Singular evolutionary and taxonomic findings in remarkable iguanian genera from Andean and neighboring zones herpetofau Multequina 11: 65-73 - get paper here
  • Cei, Jose Miguel; Scolaro, Jose Alejandro 2006. The neotype of the type species of the Neotropical iguanian genus Phymaturus: a critical commentary on a recent opinion of the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature. Zootaxa 1297:17-22. - get paper here
  • Eisenberg, T. 2003. Neues von Phymaturus palluma - dem Hochlandgebirgsleguan aus Chile. Iguana Rundschreiben 16 (2): 30
  • Eisenberg, T. & H. Werning 2012. Phymaturus cf. palluma in captivity: observations on its reproduction and biology. Salamandra 48 (4): 198-206 - get paper here
  • Etheridge, R. & Savage, J.A. 2003. Case 3225: Phymaturus Gravenhorst, 1837 and Lacerta palluma Molina, 1782 (currently Phymaturus palluma; Reptilia, Sauria): proposed conservation of usage of the names by designation of a neotype for Lacerta palluma Molina, 1782. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 60 (1): 38 - get paper here
  • Etheridge, Richard; Savage, Jay M. 2006. Stability restored to the name Phymaturus palluma: a response to Cei and Scolaro (2006). Herpetological Review 37 (4): 406-407 - get paper here
  • Etheridge,R. 1995. Redescription of Ctenoblepharys adspersa Tschudi, 1845, and the Taxonomy of Liolaeminae (Reptilia: Squamata: Tropiduridae). American Museum Novitates 3142: 1-34 - get paper here
  • Frost, D.; Etheridge, R.; Savage, J.M. 2004. On the proposed conservation of usage of the names Phymaturus Gravenhorst, 1837 and Lacerta palluma Molina, 1782 (currently Phymaturus palluma; Reptilia, Sauria) by designation of a neotype for Lacerta palluma. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 61 (1): 47 - get paper here
  • Gay, C. 1848. Historia física y política de Chile. Paris, Vol. 2: 47, 53, 61
  • Gravenhorst, J. L. C. 1838. Beiträge zur genaueren Kenntniss einiger Eidechsengattungen. Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. 18: 712-784 [1837]
  • Grosso, Jimena R.; Dario Cardozo, Diego Baldo and Fernando Lobo 2017. Multiple Sex Chromosome System and Robertsonian Rearrangements Involved in the Chromosome Evolution of the Phymaturus palluma group (Iguania: Liolaemidae). Journal of Herpetology 51 (1): 154–160 - get paper here
  • ICZN 2005. OPINION 2118 (Case 3225). Phymaturus Gravenhorst, 1837 and Lacerta palluma Molina, 1782 (currently Phymaturus palluma; Reptilia, Sauria): usage of the names conserved by the designation of a neotype for Lacerta palluma Molina, 1782. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 62 (2) - get paper here
  • Lescure, Jean; Cei, José M. 1991. L'espéce-type du genre Phymaturus Gravenhorst, 1838 (Reptilia, Sauria). Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 9 (1): 173-175
  • Lobo, F. & Abdala, C. 2007. Descripción de una nueva especie de Phymaturus del grupo de P. palluma de la provincia de Mendoza, Argentina. Cuadernos de herpetología 21 (2): 103-113 - get paper here
  • Lobo, F. and S. Quinteros 2005. A MORPHOLOGY-BASED PHYLOGENY OF PHYMATURUS (IGUANIA: LIOLAEMIDAE) WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF FOUR NEW SPECIES FROM ARGENTINA. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo) 45(13):143-177 - get paper here
  • Lobo, F. and S. Quinteros 2005. Taxonomic studies of the genus Phymaturus (Iguania: Liolaemidae): Redescription of Phymaturus patagonicus Koslowsky 1898, and revalidation and redescription of Phymaturus spurcus Barbour 1921. Journal of Herpetology 39 (4): 533-540 - get paper here
  • Lobo, Fernando and Richard Etheridge 2013. The Type Locality of Phymaturus palluma (Molina, 1782) (Reptilia: Iguania: Liolaemidae) and the Status of Phymaturus adrianae Pereyra, 1992 and Other Unnamed Populations. South American J. Herp. Aug 2013, Vol. 8, No. 2: 89-101. - get paper here
  • Lobo, Fernando; Cristian Abdala and Soledad Valdecantos 2010. Taxonomic Studies of the Genus Phymaturus (Iguania: Liolaemidae): Description of Four New Species. South American J. Herp. 5 (2):102-126 - get paper here
  • LOBO, FERNANDO; CRISTIAN ABDALA & SOLEDAD VALDECANTOS 2012. Morphological diversity and phylogenetic relationships within a South-American clade of iguanian lizards (Liolaemidae: Phymaturus). Zootaxa 3315: 1–41 - get paper here
  • Lobo, Fernando; Santiago Javier Nenda 2015. Discovery of two new species of Phymaturus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) from Patagonia, Argentina, and occurrence of melanism in the patagonicus group. Cuad. herpetol. 29 (1): 5-25
  • Molina, Don Juan Ignacio 1782. Saggio sulla Storia Naturale del Chili. Stamperia di S. Tommaso d’Aquino, Bologne, 368 pp. - get paper here
  • Molina, Don Juan Ignacio 1788. COMPENDIO DE LA HISTORIA GEOGRAFICA NATURAL Y CIVIL DEL REYNO DE CHILE, Escrito en italiano. Traducida en español por Don Domingo Joseph de Arquellada Mendoza. Madrid, Don Antonio de Sancha, 437 pp.
  • Scolaro, A. 2006. Reptiles Patagónicos Norte. Una guía de campo. Edic. Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia, Trelew, 112 pp.
  • Troncoso-Palacios, J. & Lobo, F. 2012. A new species of Phymaturus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) of the palluma group from Central Chile. Cuadernos de Herpetología 26 (2): 69-78 - get paper here
  • Vicenzi, Nadia. 2015. Phymaturus palluma (high mountain lizard) coprophagy. Herpetological Review 46 (1): 93
  • Vicenzi, Nadia; Rubén Massarelli, Eduardo Chamorro, Agustina Barros 2017. Highest record for the lizard Phymaturus palluma (Squamata: Liolaemidae) in Central Andes, Argentina. Herpetology Notes 10: 373-374 - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2009. Auf den Spuren von Darwin durch Südamerika Teil 3: Vom kalten Regenwald in die trockenste Wüste. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (80): 52-63 - get paper here
  • Werning, H. & Wolf, C. 2007. Gebirge und Hochland - Reptilien und Amphibien in einem extremen Lebensraum. Draco 7 (27): 4-27 - get paper here
 
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