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Phymaturus spectabilis LOBO & QUINTEROS, 2005

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Climber lizard [agilis]
S: Lagarto trepador [agilis] 
SynonymPhymaturus spectabilis LOBO & QUINTEROS 2005
Phymaturus agilis SCOLARO, IBARGÜENGOYTÍA & PINCHEIRA-DONOSO 2008
Phymaturus agilis — AVILA et al. 2011
Phymaturus spectabilis — PEREZ et al. 2011
Phymaturus agilis — AVILA et al. 2013
Phymaturus agilis — AVILA et al. 2014
Phymaturus agilis — SCOLARO et al. 2016 
DistributionArgentina (Rio Negro)

Type locality: 28 km south of Ingeniero Jacobacci, Rio Negro province, Argentine (on Provintial Road 6) [41° 27’ S, 69° 46’ W]

agilis: Argentina (Patagonia, Rio Negro); Type locality: rocky tableland (41º 25’ 40’’ S; 69º 45’ 07’’ W; 1030 m elevation), neighbour Provincial road 6 south of Ingeniero Jacobacci, Rio Negro Province, Argentina. Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
 
Reproductionvivparous 
TypesHolotype: MCN 1203. C. Abdala, F. Lobo, I. Martínez Oliver, and S. Quinteros, collectors.
Holotype: MLP.R. 5343, adult male. Collected by J.A. Scolaro and O.F. Tappari, 10 March 2006. [agilis] 
CommentDiagnosis: Phymaturus spectabilis belongs to the patagonicus group (sensu Etheridge, 1995) because it has flat imbricate superciliaries, non-rugose dorsal scales of the tail, subocular unique usually not fragmented, and subocular-supralabials separation given for one row of scales. It is distinguishible of all other species of the genus by its unusual dorsal pattern (Figures 2 and 4).Phenetically the species more close to P. spectabilis is P. excelsus. The last one exhibit a general dorsal pattern black with smaller and more occelli than spectabilis (7-8 among shoulder and the level of thighs versus 5-6) and several markings irregularly distributed on its vertebral field between the series of dorsal occelli.

Diet: herbivorous

Group: This species belongs to the patagonicus group (fide LOBO et al. 2010). The group sharing the same DNA bar codes formed by Phymaturus spurcus, Phymaturus spectabilis, Phymaturus excelsus, and Phymaturus agilis), are differentiated by low genetic distances which may be attributable to the presence of one species with high polymorphism (Corbalán et al. 2016).

Synonymy: Phymaturus agilis is a brown color morph of P. spectabilis (fide Lobo et al. 2010).

Diagnosis (agilis). Phymaturus agilis exhibits slight sexual differences in body size, being females larger than males. However, sexual dichromatism is not observed. The species is a member of the patagonicus group of the genus, distinguished from the flagellifer (= palluma) group in having flat imbricate superciliar scales rather than rectangular and non-overlapping, slightly spiny and non-rugose caudal scales in verticilles (as seen among members of the flagellifer group). Additionally, it presents the Meckel’s groove fused. It has also the subocular scale fragmented (in 4–5 scales) and separated from supralabials by 2–3 rows of lorilabials, as in most species of the flagellifer group, but not seen in the majority of members of the patagonicus group. Phymaturus agilis can be distinguished from other members of the patagonicus group in having a unique and homogeneous colour pattern with only slight intersexual differences, by showing an attenuate incomplete ringed tail of 2x1 scales of red brick-like dark and light respectively, and a ventrally intense orange-red bricklike colour.

Phymaturus agilis differs from the sympatric P. spectabilis in having more fragmented the subocular scale, being fragmented in only two scales in P. spectabilis; in addition, in P. agilis the subocular scale is separated from supralabials by 2–3 rows of lorilabials, while in P. spectabilis is separated by only one row of lorilabials (see more details in the results paragraph). Phymaturus spurcus (Lobo & Quinteros 2005a) exhibits 3–4 fragmented suboculars and two rows of lorilabials separating suboculars and supralabials (our own data), resulting significantly different from P. agilis (Student’s t-test = 4.4; df = 41; P < 0.01). Phymaturus agilis differs from P. calcogaster, because this last species shows the subocular fragmented in four scales, separated from the supralabials by two rows of lorilabials, and similar wide of rostral and mental scales (Scolaro & Cei 2003; Scolaro et al. 2005), and from P. indistinctus, because it shows the subocular frequently fragmented in two scales and two rows of lorilabials between suboculars and supralabials. Phymaturus agilis differs from P. patagonicus, P. excelsus, P. tenebrosus, P. ceii, P. somuncurensis, because these species exhibit non divided subocular scale, and separated from the supralabials by a single row of lorilabials. From P. zapalensis, P. payuniae and P. nevadoi differs because in these species there is strong sexual dichromatism, absent from P. agilis. In addition, the high number of scales around midbody and on the ventral surface differentiates P. agilis from P. patagonicus, P. spurcus, P. excelsus, P. spectabilis, and P. tenebrosus. 
EtymologyThe epithet spectabilis is Latin and means “notable, showy” in reference to the distinct pattern of dorsal occellations in this new species.

Etymology (agilis). The specific name agilis refers to the ability of this lizard to climb and forage on large Lycium spp. (~ 2–3 m) shrubs, an unusual behaviour in the genus Phymaturus. 
References
  • Abdala, Cristian Simón; Quinteros, Andres Sebastian 2014. Los últimos 30 años de estudios de la familia de lagartijas más diversa de Argentina. Actualización taxonómica y sistemática de Liolaemidae Cuad. herpetol. 28 (2): 55-82 - get paper here
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; CRISTIAN HERNAN FULVIO PEREZ, DANIEL ROBERTO PEREZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2011. Two new mountain lizard species of the Phymaturus genus (Squamata: Iguania) from northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. Zootaxa 2924: 1–21 - get paper here
  • Avila, Luciano Javier; Cristian Hernan Fulvio Perez, IGNACIO MINOLI & Mariana Morando 2014. A new lizard of the Phymaturus genus (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from Sierra Grande, northeastern Patagonia, Argentina. Zootaxa 3793 (1): 099–118 - get paper here
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238
  • Boretto, Jorgelina M.; Facundo Cabezas-Cartes, Erika L. Kubisch, Barry Sinervo, and Nora R. <br />Ibargüengoytía 2014. Changes in Female Reproduction and Body Condition in an Endemic Lizard, Phymaturus spectabilis, following the Puyehue Volcanic Ashfall Event. Herp. Cons. Biol. 9 (1): - get paper here
  • Cabezas-Cartes, F.; J. M. Boretto, M. Halloy, J. D. Krenz and N. R. Ibargüengoytía 2017. Maternal behaviour in response to predation threats in a vulnerable lizard from Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Zoology; DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12502 - get paper here
  • Cabezas-Cartes, Facundo. 2013. Phymaturus spectabilis predation. Herpetological Review 44 (4): 679
  • Cabezas-Cartes, Facundo; Boretto, Jorgelina M.; Ibarg?engoyt?a, Nora R. 2015. Age, growth and life-history parameters of an endemic vulnerable lizard from Patagonia, Argentina The Herpetological Journal 25 (4): 215-224 - get paper here
  • Corbalán, Valeria; Guillermo Deband , José Alejandro Scolaro , and Agustina Ojeda 2016. DNA Barcoding of Phymaturus Lizards Reveals Conflicts in Species Delimitation within the Patagonicus Clade Journal of Herpetology - get paper here
  • Lobo, F. and S. Quinteros 2005. A MORPHOLOGY-BASED PHYLOGENY OF PHYMATURUS (IGUANIA: LIOLAEMIDAE) WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF FOUR NEW SPECIES FROM ARGENTINA. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo) 45(13):143-177 - get paper here
  • Lobo, Fernando; Cristian Abdala and Soledad Valdecantos 2010. Taxonomic Studies of the Genus Phymaturus (Iguania: Liolaemidae): Description of Four New Species. South American J. Herp. 5 (2):102-126 - get paper here
  • LOBO, FERNANDO; CRISTIAN ABDALA & SOLEDAD VALDECANTOS 2012. Morphological diversity and phylogenetic relationships within a South-American clade of iguanian lizards (Liolaemidae: Phymaturus). Zootaxa 3315: 1–41 - get paper here
  • Lobo, Fernando; Cruz, Félix Benjamín;Abdala, Cristian Simón 2012. Multiple lines of evidence show that Phymaturus agilis Scolaro, Ibargüengoytía & Pincheira-Donoso, 2008 is a junior synonym of Phymaturus spectabilis Lobo & Quinteros, 2005. Cuadernos de Herpetología 26 (1): - get paper here
  • Perez, C.H.F.; N. Frutos; M. Kozykariski; M. Morando; D.R. Perez; L.J. Avila. 2011. Lizards of Rio Negro Province, northern Patagonia, Argentina. Check List 7 (3): 202-219 - get paper here
  • Scolaro, J. A. and O. F. Tappari. 2009. Una nueva especie del género Phymaturus del “grupo patagonicus” en los afloramientos rocosos del sudoeste de la provincia de Rio Negro, Patagonia Argentina (Reptilia: Iguania: Liolaemidae). Naturalia Patagónica, 4: 81–94
  • Scolaro, J.A. & Ibargüengoyía, N.R. 2008. A new fragment for the understanding of the puzzling evolutive process of the Phymaturus genus: a new species of the patagonicus group from Patagonia, Argentina (Reptilia: Iguania: Liolaemidae). Zootaxa 1939: 38–50 - get paper here
  • Scolaro, J.A. & Pincheira-Donoso, D. 2010. Lizards at the end of the world: Two new species of Phymaturus of the patagonicus clade (Squamata, Liolaemidae) revealed in southern Patagonia of Argentina. Zootaxa 2393: 17–32 - get paper here
  • Scolaro, J.A.; Ibargüengoytía, Nora & Pincheira-Donoso, D. 2008. When starvation challenges the tradition of niche conservatism: On a new species of the saxicolous genus Phymaturus from Patagonia Argentina with pseudoarboreal foraging behaviour (Iguania, Liolaemidae). Zootaxa 1786: 48–60 - get paper here
  • SCOLARO, JOSÉ ALEJANDRO; FAUSTO MÉNDEZ DE LA CRUZ & NORA R. IBARGÜENGOYTÍA 2012. A new species of Phymaturus of the patagonicus clade (Squamata, Liolaemidae) from isolated plateau of southwestern Rio Negro Province, Argentina. Zootaxa 3451: 17–30 - get paper here
  • Scolaro, José Alejandro; Valeria Corbalán, Osvaldo Fabián Tappari<br />and Lorena Obregón Streitenberger 2016. LIZARDS AT THE END OF THE WORLD: A NEW MELANIC SPECIES OF PHYMATURUS OF THE PATAGONICUS CLADE FROM ROCKY OUTCROPS IN THE NORTHWESTERN STEPPE OF CHUBUT PROVINCE, PATAGONIA ARGENTINA (REPTILIA: IGUANIA: LIOLAEMIDAE) Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile, 65: 137-152
  • Sinervo, Alejandro J. Scolaro, and Nora R. Ibargüengoytía 2014. Reproductive Biology of Phymaturus spectabilis (Liolaemidae): Females Skip Reproduction in Cold and Harsh Environments of Patagonia, Argentina. Herp. Cons. Biol. 9 (1): - get paper here
  • Tulli, M.J.; F.B. Cruz, A. Herrel, B. Vanhooydonck, V. Abdala 2009. The interplay between claw morphology and microhabitat use in neotropical iguanian lizards. Zoology 112 (5): 379-392 - get paper here
  • Winchell, S. 2010. Die Reptilien Argentiniens. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (83): 20-27 - get paper here
 
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