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Phymaturus tenebrosus LOBO & QUINTEROS, 2005

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymPhymaturus tenebrosus LOBO & QUINTEROS 2005 
DistributionArgentina (Rio Negro)

Type locality: 20 km south of Cerro Alto, National Road Nº 40, Rio Negro, Argentina [40° 46’ S, 70° 34’ W] Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
 
Reproductionvivparous 
TypesHolotype: MCN 1271. C. Abdala, F. Lobo, I. Martínez Oliver, and S. Quinteros, collectors. 
CommentThis species belongs to the patagonicus group (fide LOBO et al. 2010).

Diagnosis: Phymaturus tenebrosus belongs to the patagonicus group (sensu Etheridge, 1995) because it has flat imbricate superciliaries, non-rugose dorsal scales on tail, subocular usually not fragmented, and subocularsupralabials separated by one scale row. The new species is distinguishible from all other species of the genus by its dorsal pattern: black in most specimens, some with very fine, sparse white spots (e.g., holotype). This melanissm is dark brown in some specimens. The morphologically most similar species to P. tenebrosus are P. zapalensis and the recently described P. calcogaster, from which this new species can be readily distinguished. Phymaturus zapalensis has a more dense pattern of dorsal spots and very often a pattern of reticulation/ occellation and obvious sexual dimorphism (females with variegated pattern) and P. calcogaster, which was described solely from the male holotype (Scolaro & Cei, 2003), which has a peculiar pattern not seen in P. tenebrosus: dorsum with larger and homogeneous white spots arranged in trasverse rows, a subocular fragmented into five scales (P. tenebrosus usually lacks subocular fragmentation), and the throat of P. calcogaster is variegated.

Diet: herbivorous 
EtymologyThe epithet tenebrosus Latin word that means “dark, gloomy” in reference to the dark dorsal coloration of this new species. 
References
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; CRISTIAN HERNAN FULVIO PEREZ, DANIEL ROBERTO PEREZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2011. Two new mountain lizard species of the Phymaturus genus (Squamata: Iguania) from northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. Zootaxa 2924: 1–21 - get paper here
  • Avila, Luciano Javier; Cristian Hernan Fulvio Perez, IGNACIO MINOLI & Mariana Morando 2014. A new lizard of the Phymaturus genus (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from Sierra Grande, northeastern Patagonia, Argentina. Zootaxa 3793 (1): 099–118 - get paper here
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238
  • Kubisch, Erika Leticia; Silvina Ippi, Juan karlanian, Valeria Ojeda 2017. Distribution extension of a rare Phymaturus lizard (Squamata: Liolaemidae) reaching Nahuel Huapi National Park (Argentina) Herpetology Notes 10: 59-62 - get paper here
  • Lobo, F. and S. Quinteros 2005. A MORPHOLOGY-BASED PHYLOGENY OF PHYMATURUS (IGUANIA: LIOLAEMIDAE) WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF FOUR NEW SPECIES FROM ARGENTINA. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo) 45(13):143-177 - get paper here
  • Lobo, Fernando; Cristian Abdala and Soledad Valdecantos 2010. Taxonomic Studies of the Genus Phymaturus (Iguania: Liolaemidae): Description of Four New Species. South American J. Herp. 5 (2):102-126 - get paper here
  • LOBO, FERNANDO; CRISTIAN ABDALA & SOLEDAD VALDECANTOS 2012. Morphological diversity and phylogenetic relationships within a South-American clade of iguanian lizards (Liolaemidae: Phymaturus). Zootaxa 3315: 1–41 - get paper here
  • Lobo, Fernando; Santiago Javier Nenda 2015. Discovery of two new species of Phymaturus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) from Patagonia, Argentina, and occurrence of melanism in the patagonicus group. Cuad. herpetol. 29 (1): 5-25
  • Perez, C.H.F.; N. Frutos; M. Kozykariski; M. Morando; D.R. Perez; L.J. Avila. 2011. Lizards of Rio Negro Province, northern Patagonia, Argentina. Check List 7 (3): 202-219 - get paper here
  • Scolaro, J.A. & Ibargüengoyía, N.R. 2008. A new fragment for the understanding of the puzzling evolutive process of the Phymaturus genus: a new species of the patagonicus group from Patagonia, Argentina (Reptilia: Iguania: Liolaemidae). Zootaxa 1939: 38–50 - get paper here
  • Scolaro, J.A. & Pincheira-Donoso, D. 2010. Lizards at the end of the world: Two new species of Phymaturus of the patagonicus clade (Squamata, Liolaemidae) revealed in southern Patagonia of Argentina. Zootaxa 2393: 17–32 - get paper here
  • Scolaro, José Alejandro; Valeria Corbalán, Osvaldo Fabián Tappari<br />and Lorena Obregón Streitenberger 2016. LIZARDS AT THE END OF THE WORLD: A NEW MELANIC SPECIES OF PHYMATURUS OF THE PATAGONICUS CLADE FROM ROCKY OUTCROPS IN THE NORTHWESTERN STEPPE OF CHUBUT PROVINCE, PATAGONIA ARGENTINA (REPTILIA: IGUANIA: LIOLAEMIDAE) Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile, 65: 137-152
  • Sinervo, B. et al. 2010. Erosion of Lizard Diversity by Climate Change and Altered Thermal Niches. Science 328: 894-899
  • Tulli, M.J.; F.B. Cruz, A. Herrel, B. Vanhooydonck, V. Abdala 2009. The interplay between claw morphology and microhabitat use in neotropical iguanian lizards. Zoology 112 (5): 379-392 - get paper here
 
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