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Phymaturus williamsi LOBO, LASPIUR & ACOSTA, 2013

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymPhymaturus williamsi LOBO, LASPIUR & ACOSTA 2013 
DistributionNW Argentina

Type locality: Quebrada vallecito, 40 km W of Calingasta town, Calingasta department, San Juan province. 31°11’21’’ S; 69°42’15.1’’ W, 3000 m elevation. Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
 
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: MCN 2820. Male. A. Laspiur, R. Acosta & J. C. Acosta cols. 11/05/2008.
Paratypes:.MCN 2808-10, 2812-14, 2815, 2816-17, 2821. Same data as holotype. MCN 3259-65. Quebrada Vallecito, 40 km W of Calingasta town, Calingasta department, San Juan province. 31o11’21’’S; 69o42’15.1’’W, 3000m asl. A. Laspiur & J. C. Acosta cols. 
CommentDiagnosis: Phymaturus williamsi sp. nov. differs from all other members of the Puna clade because: exhibits an “aggregate” dorsal pattern, unlike the ho- mogeneous spray of most Puna species, lacks enlarged scales on the anterior margin of the antehumeral fold and in the centre of chest, flank coloration in females is absent, females of Phymaturus williamsi sp. nov. lack white transversal stripes on the dorsal pattern, preocular scale in contact with canthal scale in Phymaturus williamsi sp. nov., rostral scale can be divided in Phymaturus williamsi sp. nov. and shows the largest number of scales counted around midbody within the Puna subclade (x= 213.4; 186-235).

Diagnosis. Phymaturus williamsi belongs to the palluma group because it shares their well-known apomorphies with all the other members: square, non-imbricate superciliaries, rugose dorsal scales of the tail, usually a fragmented subocular, and subocular and supralabials separated by two or more scale rows. This new taxon belongs to the Puna subclade of the palluma group (Lobo & Quinteros 2005b) because it shows the typical dorsal “spray” pattern (southern palluma group members show a dorsal reticulated pattern). Within the Puna subclade, P. williamsi differs from all other species in its particular character combination; P. williamsi shows the dorsum of neck homogeneous melanic, not interrupted in the midline as in P. antofagastensis, P. laurenti and P. punae. Phymaturus williamsi lacks enlarged scales posterior to the cloacal opening which are present in P. laurenti and P. aguanegra. Tarsal scales are strongly keeled in P. williamsi but slightly keeled in P. laurenti. Phymaturus williamsi exhibits an “aggregate” dorsal pattern, unlike the homogeneous spray of most Puna species; a similar condition is only found in P. antofagastensis (Fig. 12D in Lobo & Quinteros 2005b). Phymaturus williamsi lacks enlarged scales on the anterior margin of the antehumeral fold and in the centre of chest, as in P. antofagastensis and P. laurenti. Flank coloration in females is absent in P. williamsi but is present in P. antofagastensis (yellow), P. laurenti and P. mallimaccii (orange). A light-gray vertebral stripe, which is absent in P. antofagastensis and P. laurenti, is present in P. williamsi; a dark gray vertebral stripe can be present in individuals of P. aguanegra. Females of P. williamsi lack white transversal stripes on the dorsal pattern, as in females of P. antofagastensis and P. laurenti (not all individuals). Phymaturus williamsi exhibits a tricolor dorsal pattern, with two types of brown and a scattered ferriferous oxide spotting; this pattern is not found in any other species of the group, with the exception of P. aguanegra and P. paihuanense. A scapular spot is mostly absent (only one subadult male with a vanishing spot) in P. williamsi as in most of Puna species, with the exception of P. mallimaccii. Preocular scale is in contact with canthal scale in P. williamsi, whereas it is separated by a smaller scale in P. antofagastensis, P. aguanegra, P. laurenti, and P. punae. Rostral scale can be divided in P. williamsi but is always undivided in P. aguanegra, P. laurenti, and P. mallimaccii. P. williamsi shows the largest number of scales counted around midbody within the Puna subclade (x= 213.4; 186–235); the remaining species show a mean below 200 scales. Neither males nor females of P. paihuanense exhibit head melanism (present in P. williamsi); males of this species show enlarged scales on the anterior margin of the antehumeral fold (absent in P. williamsi). Phymaturus williamsi differ of P. damasense in the presence of non-projected scales in the anterior border of auditory meatus (present in P. damasense) and color pattern of males and females. 
EtymologyWe name this new species in honour of our Argentine colleague and friend Jorge Williams, in recognition of his effort and dedication for the development of herpetology in our country. 
References
  • LOBO, FERNANDO; ALEJANDRO LASPIUR, JUAN CARLOS ACOSTA 2013. Description of new andean species of the genus Phymaturus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) from Northwestern Argentina. Zootaxa 3683: 117–132 - get paper here
  • Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime and Damien Esquerré 2014. A new species of Phymaturus of the P. mallimaccii Group from the Andes of central Chile (Iguania: Liolaemidae). Phyllomedusa 13 (1):3–15 - get paper here
 
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