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Pituophis catenifer (BLAINVILLE, 1835)

IUCN Red List - Pituophis catenifer - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesPituophis catenifer affinis HALLOWELL 1852
Pituophis catenifer annectens BAIRD & GIRARD 1853
Pituophis catenifer catenifer (BLAINVILLE 1835)
Pituophis catenifer deserticola STEJNEGER 1893
Pituophis catenifer fulginatus KLAUBER 1946
Pituophis catenifer pumilus KLAUBER 1946
Pituophis catenifer sayi (SCHLEGEL 1837) 
Common NamesGopher Snake
affinis: Sonoran Gopher Snake
annectens: San Diego Gopher Snake
bimaris: Central Baja California Gopher Snake
catenifer: Pacific Gophersnake
coronalis:
deserticola: Great Basin Gopher Snake
fulginatus:
pumilis: Santa Cruz Gopher Snake
sayi: Bullsnake 
SynonymColuber catenifer BLAINVILLE 1835: 290
Pituophis catenifer — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 69
Pituophis wilkesii — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853
Pityophis heermanni — HALLOWELL 1853
Elaphis reticulatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 246
Pituophis mexicanus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 256
Pityophis catenifer — GARMAN 1884: 52
Pityophis catenifer var. mexicanus — GARMAN 1884: 52
Coluber catenifer — BOULENGER 1894: 67
Pituophis catenifer rutilus — VAN DENBURGH 1920
Pituophis catenifer stejnegeri — VAN DENBURGH 1920
Pituophis catenifer coronalis KLAUBER 1946
Pituophis catenifer fuliginatus KLAUBER 1946
Pituophis melanoleucus catenifer — HIRSCHKORN 1986
Pituophis catenifer — LINER 1994
Pituophis melanoleucus catenifer — BOL 2007
Pituophis catenifer — WALLACH et al. 2014: 561

Pituophis catenifer affinis HALLOWELL 1852
Pituophis affinis HALLOWELL 1852
Pituophis sayi affinis — TAYLOR 1938: 493
Pituophis catenifer affinis — FUGLER 1956
Pituophis melanoleucus affinis — BOGERT 1966
Pituophis melanoleucus affinis — WEBB 1984
Pituophis melanoleucus affinis — STEBBINS 1985: 189
Pituophis melanoleucus affinis — TANNER 1985: 638
Pituophis melanoleucus affinis — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 204
Pituophis catenifer affinis — COLLINS 1997
Pituophis catenifer affinis — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 371
Pituophis catenifer affinis — CROTHER 2000: 68
Pituophis catenifer affinis — HIRSCHKORN & SKUBOWIUS 2011
Pituophis catenifer affinis — LOVE 2011
Pituophis catenifer affinis — SKUBOWIUS 2012

Pituophis catenifer annectens BAIRD & GIRARD 1853
Pituophis annectens BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 72
Pituophis catenifer annectens — KLAUBER 1946: 25
Pituophis melanoleucus annectens — STEBBINS 1985: 190
Pituophis melanoleucus annectans [sic] — HIRSCHKORN 1986
Pituophis melanoleucus annectens — LINER 1994
Pituophis melanoleucus annectens — GRISMER et al. 1996
Pituophis catenifer annectens — RODRIGUEZ-ROBLES & JESUS-ESCOBAR 2000
Pituophis catenifer annectans [sic] — MATTISON 2007: 29
Pituophis catenifer annectens — HIRSCHKORN & SKUBOWIUS 2011: 94

Pituophis catenifer catenifer (BLAINVILLE 1835)
Pituophis melanoleucus catenifer — STEBBINS 1985: 190
Pituophis catenifer catenifer — CROTHER 2000: 68
Pituophis catenifer catenifer — HIRSCHKORN & SKUBOWIUS 2011

Pituophis catenifer deserticola STEJNEGER 1893: 206
Pituophis catenifer deserticola — MITTLERMAN 1942
Pituophis catenifer deserticola — BRADLEY & DEACON 1966
Pituophis melanoleucus deserticola — PARKER 1973
Pituophis melanoleucus deserticola — STEBBINS 1985: 190
Pituophis catenifer deserticola — CROTHER 2000: 68
Pituophis catenifer deserticola — HIRSCHKORN & SKUBOWIUS 2011

Pituophis catenifer fulginatus KLAUBER 1946
Pituophis catenifer fulginatus KLAUBER 1946: 14
Pituophis catenifer fuliginatus — RODRÍGUEZ-ROBLES & DE JESÚS-ESCOBAR 2000
Pituophis catenifer bimaris — LOVICH et al. 2008: 28

Pituophis catenifer pumilus KLAUBER 1946: 41
Pituophis melanoleucus pumilis — STEBBINS 1985: 190
Pituophis catenifer pumilis — CROTHER 2000: 68
Pituophis catenifer pumilis — LOVICH et al. 2008: 28
Pituophis catenifer pumilus — HIRSCHKORN & SKUBOWIUS 2011

Pituophis catenifer sayi (SCHLEGEL 1837)
Coluber Sayi SCHLEGEL 1837: 157
Coluber Sayi DEKAY 1842: 41 (fide DUMÉRIL et al. 1854)
Coronella Sayi - HOLBROOK 1842: 99
Ophibolus Sayi — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 84
Coronella Sayi — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 619
Pityophis catenifer var. sayi — GARMAN 1884: 52
Pituophis sayi — FORCE 1928
Pituophis sayi sayi — BURT 1935
Pituophis melanoleucus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 203
Pituophis catenifer sayi — LINER et al. 1993
Pituophis melanoleucus sayi — LINER 1994
Pituophis catenifer sayi — COLLINS 1997
Pituophis catenifer sayi — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 369
Pituophis catenifer sayi — MATTISON 2007: 50 
DistributionCanada (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan),
USA (Washington, Oregon, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, South Dakota, California, New Mexico, Arizona),
Mexico (Baja California, Aguascalientes, Nuevo León, Sonora)

affinis: W Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, SE California and south to Mexico (Zacatecas and S Sinaloa, San Luis Potosi, Coahuila, Chihuahua); Type locality: New Mexico.

annectens: S California, N Baja California; Type locality: San Diego, California.

catenifer:N California, W Oregon, W Washington, S British Columbia; Type locality: California.

coronalis: California: Coronado Island

deserticola: E Washington, Oregon, E California, Nevada, Idaho, N Arizona, NW New Mexico, W Colorado, Utah, SW Wyoming; Type locality: Great Basin and southwestern deserts.

fulginatus: Baja California, San Martín Island

pumilis: California: Santa Cruz Island

sayi: Canada (S Alberta, S Saskatchewan), USA (Montana, SW North Dakota, South Dakota, Illinois, Indiana, Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas, E New Mexico, Minnesota, Nebraska, Oklahoma (BURT 1935), Wisconsin, Texas), Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Tamaulipas); Type locality: Missouri.

Type locality: Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MNHN 57
Holotype: SDSNH 32621; paratypes SDSNH [bimaris]
Holotype: SDSNH 20229; paratype SDSNH 11365 [coronalis]
Holotype: SDSNH 17449; paratype SDSNH 17463, 17464 (topotypes) [fuliginatus]
Holotype: SDSNH 17238 [pumilus]
Holotype: CAS 14203 [deserticola]
Holotype: CAS 33869 [affinis] 
CommentSubspecies: Some authors recognize Pituophis melanoleucus annectens (e.g. http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/photos/fauna/cas-herp.html). COLLINS (1997) doesn’t recognize the subspecies bimaris, coronalis, fulginatus, insulanus, vertebralis but LINER (1994) does. Others consider some of them (like vertebralis) as valid species (e.g. GRISMER 1997). GRISMER 2002 considers P. c. bimaris as pattern variant of P. vertebralis. P. c. sayi is closely related to affinis and P. ruthveni (Rodríguez-Robles & De Jesús-Escobar, 2000). We do not recognize P. c. coronalis following BOUNDY et al. 2012.

Hybridization: Pituophis catenifer sayi × Pantherophis vulpinus hybridize in nature (LeClere et al. 2012). 
EtymologyProbably named after the chain-like pattern (Latin “catena” = chain, -fer = carrying). P. c. sayi was named after Thomas Say (1787-1834), American naturalist. For biographical notes see Conniff 2011: 120ff. The subspecific name affinis is a Latin word meaning "related," applied in recognition of its relationship to P c. sayi. 
References
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  • Williams, Kathleen E.; Karen E. Hodges, and Christine A. Bishop 2015. Hibernation and Oviposition Sites of Great Basin Gophersnakes (Pituophis catenifer deserticola) near Their Northern Range Limit. Journal of Herpetology Jun 2015, Vol. 49, No. 2: 207-216. - get paper here
 
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http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Pituophis&species=catenifer

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