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Podocnemis erythrocephala SPIX, 1824

IUCN Red List - Podocnemis erythrocephala - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaPodocnemididae, Pelomedusoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesRed-headed Amazon Side-necked Turtle 
SynonymEmys cayennensis SCHWEIGGER 1812 (part.)
Emys erythrocephala SPIX 1824: 9
Emys bitentaculata CUVIER in GRAY 1830: 17
Emys enythrocephala [sic] — SCHINZ 1833
Podocnemis agassizii COUTINHO in GÖLDI 1886: 277
Podocnemis coutinhii GÖLDI 1886: 279 (nom. nov.)
Podocnemis dumeriliana — BOULENGER 1889 (partim)
Podocnemis cayennensis — SIEBENROCK 1902
Podocnemis erythrocephala — FRAIR et al. 1978
Podocnemis erythrocephala — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Podocnemis erythrocephala — TTWG 2014 
DistributionColombia (Rio Negro and Rio Casiquiare drainages), Venezuela, Brazil (Pará [HR 31: 253])

Type locality: "Rio Solimoens" (=Rio Solimoes), South America, most probably Brazil; but Vanzolini 1981 (in: Spix and Wagler 1824-1825) believes the Rio Solimoes is outside the species range. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: ZSM 2517, 0. 
CommentSPIX 1824 is the original describer according to KING & BURKE 1989.

Synonymy: BAUR (1893) considered this species as a synonym of Podocnemis unifilis. Called Podocnemis cayennensis by most authors until nomenclature was clarified by Mittermeier and Wilson 1974. 
References
  • Baur,G. 1893. Notes on the classification and taxonomy of the Testudinata. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 31: 210-225 - get paper here
  • Bernardes, VirgÍnia Campos Diniz; Camila Rudge Ferrara, Richard C. Vogt, and Larissa Schneider 2014. Abundance and Population Structure of Podocnemis erythrocephala (Testudines, Podocnemididae) in the Unini River, Amazonas. Chelonian Conservation and Biology Jul 2014, Vol. 13, No. 1: 89-95. - get paper here
  • Bernhard, Rafael and Richard C. Vogt 2012. Population Structure of the Turtle Podocnemis erythrocephala in the Rio Negro Basin, Brazil. Herpetologica 68 (4): 491-504. - get paper here
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Cardoso dos Santos, Rafaela; Maria das Neves Silva Viana, Luíz Alberto dos Santos Monjeló, Paulo César Machado Andrade, Jackson Pantoja-Lima, Paulo Henrique Guimarães Oliveira, Richard C. Vogt, Juarez Carlos Brito Pezzuti, Jack W. Sites, Tomas Hrbek, 2016. Testing the Effects of Barriers on the Genetic Connectivity in Podocnemis erythrocephala (Red-Headed Amazon River Turtle): Implications for Management and Conservation Chelonian Conservation and Biology Jun 2016, Vol. 15, No. 1: 12-22. - get paper here
  • Da Cunha, Fernando Lima Rodrigues, Rafael Bernhard and Richard C. Vogt. 2014. Podocnemis erythrocephala, Podocnemis expansa, Podocnemis sextuberculata, Podocnemis unifilis (red-headed Amazon River turtle, giant South American River turtle, six-tubercled Amazon River turtle, yellow-spotted Amazon River turtle) coexistence. Herpetological Review 45 (2): 319
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Frair, W.; Mittermeier, R.A.; Rhodin, A.G.J. 1978. Blood biochemistry and relations among Podocnemis turtles (Pleurodira, Pelomedusidae). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 61B: 139-143 - get paper here
  • Gaffney, Eugene S.; Peter A. Meylan, Roger C. Wood, Elwyn Simons, and Diogenes De Almeida Campos 2011. Evolution of the Side-Necked Turtles: The Family Podocnemididae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (350): 1-237 - get paper here
  • Goeldi, E. A. 1886. Ueber eine vermuthlich neue Schildkröte der Gattung Podocnemis vom Rio Negro und über die Chelonier des Amazonas-Gebietes im Allgemeinen. St. Gallische Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft, Bericht über die Thätigheit 1884–1885 [1886]: 273–280
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Gray, J. E. 1830. Spicilegia Zoologica. Part 2. Treüttel, Würtz, London
  • Herz, M. 2014. Begegnungen mit Schildkröten im venezolanischen Bundesstaat Amazonas. Teil 1: Wasserschildkröten. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (110): 52-59
  • Hoogmoed, M. S.;Avila-Pires, T. C. S. de 1990. New distribution data for Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix) with remarks on some other turtle taxa (Reptilia: Chelonia: Pelomedusidae). Zoologische Mededelingen 64: 21-24 - get paper here
  • Magalhães, Marcela S.; Richard C. Vogt, José Fernando M. Barcellos, Carlos Eduardo B. Moura, and Ronis Da Silveira 2014. Morphology of the Digestive Tube of the Podocnemididae in the Brazilian Amazon. Herpetologica Dec 2014, Vol. 70, No. 4: 449-463. - get paper here
  • Mittermeier, R.A., and R.A. Wilson. 1974. Redescription of Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix, 1824), and Amazonian pelomedusid turtle. Papeis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo. 28:147-162. - get paper here
  • Pritchard, P.C.H., and P. Trebbau. 1984. The Turtles of Venezuela. SSAR Contributions to Herpetology 2: viii + 402 pp.
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Schweigger, A.F. 1812. Prodromus Monographia Cheloniorum auctore Schweigger. Königsberg. Arch. Naturwiss. Mathem., 1: 271-368, 406-458.
  • Spix, J.B. and J.G. Wagler 1824. Herpetology of Brazil. Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 400 pp.
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
 
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